Due to the increasing presidential style of recent prime ministers and the party loyalty of the executive one can consider Parliament’s control of executive power minimal. However, due to the development of independent bodies surrounding Select Committees and the delaying of legislation by the House of Lords it can still be argued to be effective. The government usually has an overall majority. This is due to our voting system of FPTP which gives preference to the two main parties, normally giving them majorities (and increasingly large ones) as opposed to coalitions and minority governments which are produced through other voting systems such as AV in Scotland and Wales. Although we are currently in a coalition the government still has a majority through the combination of Conservatives and Liberal Democrats.
The Kaiser of Germany, who was the King of Prussia, could be the main reason why Germany was conceived as an authoritarian monarchy, due to the Kaiser having such a powerful constitutional position that no-one could challenge him. Kaiser Wilhelm II was not elected as Emperor of Germany but was automatically selected which instantly shows signs of an authoritarian state, rather than a democratic one. On top of this Wilhelm II had the power to appoint to and dismiss the Chancellor; which he exercised 5 times including on Bismark (1890) and Bulow (1909) these did show signs of power from the Kaiser but also a weakness in the structure of Germany as the Kaiser was not able to choose a Chancellor that would provide leadership and loyalty to him. The Kaiser was also given the power direct Germany’s foreign policy and command all armed forces in peace and war which does show incredible amounts of dictatorship like qualities. However, it could be argued that because Germany was so widespread with many class divisions it was almost an impossible task for Kaiser Wilhelm to please everyone causing groups like the ‘middelstand’ to join
Unlike the previous countries, France viewed reason as their end and their ‘new truth’. Thus, France’s attitude on ‘latitudinarian’ is one of disdain. Under the reign of ‘reason’, the French began to overthrow their society rather than make reasonable improvements. There were constant rebellions and overthrow of powers, which led to the Reign of Terror. Conclusion: Although the 3 revolutions were
This definition accepts that restrictive policies were in place but implies these were justified as they helped provide security and stability. (A) and (B) propose the more simplistic viewpoint that Napoleon was not just using the police to impose security, but instead using them to crush all opposition and create a “Police State”. (A) and (B) fail to provide enough convincing evidence in favour of their argument and so the title of “security state” is more suitable. However, on the other hand, it is also essential to look at whether this form of policing within France was actually introduced by Napoleon. Even though (A) and (B) present Napoleon’s regime in a rather cynical light, neither claim he solely introduced a “Police State”.
The challenge was to create a strong central government without letting any one person, or group of people, get too much power. How did the Constitution Guard against Tyranny? “The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may be justly pronounced the very definition of tyranny.” (James Madison, May. 1787). The Articles of Confederation wasn’t working for the fifty-five individuals at the Constitutional Convention on May of 1787 in Philadelphia.
Conclusion In conclusion, whilst the Campaigns were pivotal opportunities for Napoleon to make his name and increase his popularity and heroism, this by itself was not enough to make him the most powerful person in France by 1800. His personal leadership characteristics, his ability to exploit
Causes of French Military Defeat The first Indochina war fought between the French and Vietminh ultimately cumulated to Vietminh victory. However several important factors led to their success. These include the misjudgment of the political situation in Indochina and her surrounding neighbors before and during the conflict; the tactical and strategic miscalculations that the French made; and also the support or lack thereof present within Indochina, France and the allies of both nations. The complicated political allegiances of countries in Indochina and their people were not taken into greater consideration amongst the French. The Cambodian Democrat party, supporting the independence movement gained a majority in their elections, whilst the Laotian King still supported the French; nationalist groups soon divided the country along with French garrison and Vietminh.
William Ottenjohn The Portable Edmund Burke Edmund burke was a quintessential forerunner of the revolution. All though he was only a forerunner in thought he helped to set the stage for how the rest of Europe would view the French revolution. Burke did not initially condemn the French Revolution. In many of his letters he wrote how England was gazing with astonishment at a French struggle for Liberty and not knowing whether it would be for the better of the content of if it would be disastrous for everyone involved. Then events on 5–6 October 1789, in which a mob of Parisian women marched on Versailles and took King Louis XVI turn to Paris, turned Burke against the entire movement because it became to radical.
France got affected economically which made the people of France lose hope on monarch. The enlightenment was a more important cause because without that the people would have not thought the American Revolution as a big turning point. The critical thinking that the enlightenment bought about caused the people to look at it from another
"(Dictionnaire Philosophique) The French government did their best to keep Voltaire's writings out of the hands of the common people, however his views and philosophies became widely known in France. Most of the people in France realized that a change was needed but, those in power had no plans of giving away their power or improving the lives of the people. Thus, many called for a revolution. Voltaire’s influence on the new French government is seen in the balance of power between the National Assembly, Legislative Assembly, and other bodies of politicians. It can also be seen in the separation of powers into the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government in the United