Since Egypt was bordered on one side by a huge sea, and on the other side an impassable desert, it made it very challenging to attack or conquer Egypt. Since Mesopotamia was wide open on most sides, it was very effortless to invade. Socially, their rankings were quite similar; Priests/ Pharaohs were ranked the highest, lower-class was second, and then slaves, but Egyptians were notorious to treat the slaves far beyond brutal. Mesopotamians typically used war prisoners or debtors as slaves. The Egyptian society tended to think of themselves as superior to other people, so Egyptians frequently eyed foreigners with unwelcomed glares.
Egyptians used this very frequently because it is freshwater resource in the country and due to their lack of precipitation, they can use the river to their advantage. In Mesopotamia, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers were used as an excellent transportation system, the water was for growing crops and drinking. But one thing different from the Nile, is that it once or twice a year the rivers would flood and the Mesopotamians then used the extra water for irrigation on the land. Egyptians invented a written language known as Hieroglyphs. They used pictures to interpret what they were saying when trying to communicate.
“That writing system, invented by the Sumerians, emerged in Mesopotamia around 3500 BCE. At first, this writing was representational, meaning the words were pictures. Though writing began as
The kings lavished themselves in the countries’ wealth and power. They were head of ritual and the kings’ power grew as the temples did. As many similarities there are the differences by far outweigh them socially, economically and politically. Socially the Egyptian social classes were not as noticeable as the Mesopotamian classes. For example in Egypt slaves could be freed so there was no distinctive class for slaves.
Mekong provides irrigation for crops, dry seasons causes lower water level. Their flood waters enrich soil deposits on banks and forms borders between Laos and Thailand. The waterways may seem normal, but it have many problems since the tension increased between countries. The interplay of water resources issues and politics, has raised between countries that share drainage basins. For example Sudan’s plans to expand its irrigation networks along the upper Nile and Ethiopia’s Blue Nile Dam project are both causes of concern.
Although archaeologist are still studying the Xia and Shang dynasties, recent decades have turned up evidence that the Xia dynasty may have been the origin of a political organization in China about 2200 B.C.E. From recent excavations archeologist can assume that the city of Erlitou was most likely the capital of the Xia dynasty. The sage-king Yu was the founder of the Xia dynasty. His power spanned through the Yellow River valley due to the fact that he controlled the leaders of the individual villages. The Xia dynasty yielded to the Shang way that started in the south and east of where the Xia dynasty was.
Ancient Egypt was filled with a vast and widespread history, reflecting on the way the people of the society had been living at the time. In the Pharaonic era, the ruling kings were called Pharaoh’s. There were different social classes in which people were divided, cultural aspects that the Egyptian people lived by and the religion followed by the Ancient Egyptians was one that was taken very seriously. In the following essay I will be discussing the above three subjects as characteristics of Pharaonic Egypt. Starting at around 3000 BC after the two lands, Upper and Lower Egypt, became one with King Menes uniting the two regions.
A question that appears to be very interesting is how the Mayans became highly civilized, even though civilized cultures started around Agrarian time (6500). The ancestors of the Mayans were hunters but about 2,500 BC they adopted farming as a way of life. In the years from 300 BC to 250 AD organized Mayan kingdoms emerged. Then from 250 AD to 600 AD an advanced civilization emerged. The Mayans invented writing and they made great advances in astronomy and mathematics.
The city- states were ruled by kings who set boundaries, regulated religion, provided justice, and led the armies. The elite kings, priests, and nobles controlled much of the land, which was worked by slaves. Sumerian civilization established the basic traditions for all Mesopotamian civilizations. Although larger political empires occasionally merged, the city-state remained the elemental principle of political organization in Sumeria. The economy continued to rely on slave labor.