Cardiovascular System Review Sheet

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The Cardiovascular System Normal Anatomy * The heart is located in the LEFT side of the mediastinum * Consists of Three layers- epicardium, myocardium and endocardium * The epicardium covers the outer surface of the heart * The myocardium is the middle muscular layer of the heart * The endocardium lines the chambers and the valves * The layer that covers the heart is the PERICARDIUM * There are two parts- parietal and visceral pericardium * The space between the two pericardial layers is the pericardial space * The heart also has four chambers- two atria and two ventricles * The Left atrium and the right atrium * The left ventricle and the right ventricle The heart chambers are guarded by valves…show more content…
CARDIAC Catheterization * Insertion of a catheter into the heart and surrounding vessels * Determines the structure and performance of the heart valves and surrounding vessels * Used to diagnose CAD, assess coronary patency, and determine the extent of atherosclerosis. * Pretest: Ensure Consent, assess for allergy to seafood and iodine, NPO, document weight and height, baseline VS, blood tests and document the peripheral pulses * Fast for 8-12 hrs, health teaching, medications to allay anxiety. * Intra-test: inform patient of a fluttery feeling as the catheter passes through the heart; inform the patient that a feeling of warmth and metallic taste may occur when dye is administered * Post-test: Monitor VS and cardiac rhythm * Monitor peripheral pulses, color and warmth and sensation of the extremity distal to insertion…show more content…
CHEST PAIN * Chest pain is described as severe, persistent, crushing substernal discomfort * Radiates to the neck, arm, jaw and back * Occurs without cause primarily early in the morning * Not relieved by rest or notroglycerin * Last 30 mins or longer 2. Dyspnea 3. Diaphoresis 4. cold clammy skin 5. N/V 6. restlessness, sense of doom 7. tachycardia or bradycardia 8. hypotension 9. S3 and dysrhythmias Laboratory findings * 1. ECG- the ST segment is ELEVATED. T wave inversion, presence of Q wave * 2. Myocardial enzymes- elevated CK-MB, LDH and Troponin levels * 3. CBC- may show elevated WBC count * 4. Test after the acute stage- Exercise tolerance test, thallium scans, cardiac catheterization Nursing Interventions 1. Provide Oxygen at 2 lpm, Semi-fowler’s 2. Administer medications * Morphine to relieve pain * nitrates, thrombolytics, aspirin and anticoagulants * Stool softener and hypolipidemics 3. Minimize patient anxiety * Provide information as to procedures and drug therapy 4. Provide adequate rest periods 5. Minimize metabolic demands * Provide soft diet * Provide a low-sodium, low cholesterol and low fat diet 6. Minimize

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