South Africa has the highest levels of alcohol consumption per drinker in the whole world and boasts the most hazardous patterns of drinking, such as drinking in the morning, drinking instead of eating and drinking into intoxication (Parry, & Dewing, 2006). As a result, alcohol has a great burden in the lives of South Africans in terms of crime, violence, injury, drunk-driving, health problems, cognitive problems and under-age drinking (Parry, & Dewing, 2006). The magnitudes of the effects of alcohol differ with sex and age differences. As means of reducing the above mentioned harmful effects of alcohol, measures have been put in place to restrict the accessibility of alcohol, alcohol advertising and marketing (Parry, & Dewing, 2006). These means have caused much controversy; some are for these strict and firm measures on alcohol availability while some are against such measures. By addressing the factors of initial alcohol use and continuation
General Cognitive Problems:
Alcohol is in essence a central nervous system (CNS) depressant (Zeigler et al., 2004). It affects the brain’s functioning through many various ways such as affecting the ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors, cell signaling and synapse pruning (Zeigler et al., 2004). Alcohol inhibits or increases CNS activity in ways that divert from the CNS’s normal functioning (Zeigler et al., 2004). Alcohol excites the brain’s major neurotransmitter which is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and inhibits glutame’s action therefore causing defects on cognition and motor skills (Zeigler et al., 2004). The desire to consume more alcohol and the abuse of alcohol consumption or alcohol dependency is given rise by the stimulation of the euphoria causing endorphins and the stimulation of dopamine (Zeigler et al., 2004). Blackouts are also experienced which are extreme memory loss of what occurs at the time of consumption (Zeigler et al., 2004). 6-24 hours after excessive consumption of...