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Chapter 20: the Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform Outline.

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Mr. Dunbar

AP European History

Chapter 20: The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform Outline

Chapter Overview

    • The Congress of Vienna—which effectively ended the Napoleonic Era—was followed by a decade in which conservative political forces controlled virtually all of Europe.

    • Goal of the new system of balance of power was to maintain peace and prevent war

    • Major powers in Europe sought to maintain the authority of monarchies and aristocracies after the turmoil of the French Revolution and Napoleon

    • Differing views on the demarcation of national borders

    o Nationalists wanted borders drawn according to boundaries of ethnicity or nationalities.

    o Liberals sought moderate political reform and freer economic markets

    ▪ French Revolution in 1830 and a sweeping reform bill passed through Parliament were victories for European liberals

    o Conservatives wanted to preserve the traditional order and dominated much of the first half of the nineteenth century.

    ▪ Russia and eastern Europe continued to resist political and social change

Section One: The Challenges of Nationalism and Liberalism

    • Section Overview

    o Historians often refer to the nineteenth century as the great age of “…isms” that includes nationalism, liberalism, republicanism, socialism, and communism.

    • The Emergence of Nationalism

    o Nationalism

    ▪ Definition—as a political outlook, nationalism is the relatively modern concept that a nation is composed of people who are joined together by the bonds of a common language, as well as common customs, culture, and history, and who, because of these bonds, should be administered by the same government.

    • Ethnic and political boundaries should coincide.

    o Opposition to the Vienna Settlement

    ▪ Vienna contended that legitimate monarchies and dynasties, rather than ethnicity, provide the basis for political unity which...

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