Hrm 520 Essays

  • Get Help with Your Assignment Complete Course a+ Material Essay

    2548 Words  | 11 Pages


  • Ethical Issues Essay

    593 Words  | 3 Pages

    Ethical Issues in HRM Strategy LeShundia Porter Dr. Sue Lowe HRM 520 April 25, 2012 Ethical Issues in HRM Strategy: Identify the areas of overlap in the new client organization with others that you have had as clients. If you have limited experience with these types of problems, be sure to research common issues to complete this question. While researching XYZ Company the area of overlap was due to equal pay, color race, and gender diversity. With these issues it resulted in the downfall

  • Human Resouce Essay

    37022 Words  | 149 Pages

    acknowledgements Tour of the book HRM as I see it: video and text feature Publisher’s acknowledgements Key topics grid I the arena of contemporary human resource management 1 the nature of contemporary HRM John Bratton Outline Objectives Introduction The development of HRM Keynesianism: collectivism and personnel management HRM in practice 1.1: A new role for HR professionals Neo-liberalism: individualism and HRM Management and HRM The meaning of ‘human resource’

  • Miss Essay

    1775 Words  | 8 Pages

    This essay will discuss about the adoption of a unitarist (HRM) approach and its effects for all the major employment relations actors. Beet et al. (as cited in Sheehan, 2005) claimed that in order to overcome with the international competition that has been increasing in the last couple of years, organisations had to converge on the value of human resources approach (p.34). ‘The managerialism in the emergence of HRM in the 1980s has overthrown the industrial democracy perspectives of the previous

  • Innovations Essay

    507 Words  | 3 Pages

    outcomes for both the employee and the employer. PWD views various aspects of their socialization process. REFERENCE * Hitt, M. A., Miller, C. C., & Colella, A. (2011). Part 1 Case Study.  Organizational behavior (3rd ed., Ch.13, 485-520). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley. * Ugrin JC, Pearson JM, Odom MD. (2007). Profiling cyber-slackers in the workplace: demographic, cultural, and workplace factors: Journal of Internet Commerce (J INTERNET COMMERCE), 2007; 6 (3): 75-89. (17 ref). *

  • Southern Discomfort Essay

    1159 Words  | 5 Pages

    operations in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin. The population of Oconomowoc, Wisconsin is very small with limited resources. The city would definitely be harmed by a company closure. The town has a population of just over 9,000 people and the plant employs about 520 local workers.   Some of the workers are third generation employees which makes Jim Malescowski feel remorseful about the project.   The company also was faced with the unionized labor. The unionized labor agreement stated that the company cannot

  • Systems Consideration in Hris Essay

    4078 Words  | 17 Pages

    Running Head: SYSTEMS CONSIDERATION IN HRIS Assignment 1: Systems Consideration in HRIS Sylvia Armstrong Dr. Matthew Gonzalez HRM 520 – Human Resource Information Systems April 22, 2012 1. Use the internet to research and evaluate two (2) commercial HR database systems for your organization. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each system and, and base on your knowledge of human resources and database systems, propose one (1) package that would fit the needs of your

  • Approaches To Ihrm Essay

    2289 Words  | 10 Pages

    INTRODUCTION The study of IHRM has emerged as a distinct subfield of human resource management (HRM), as evidenced by its inclusion in management education programs, its articulation in organization structures and in the emergence of specialty academic journals(Sheehan, Fenwick and Dowling, 2010). More so, the term covers a broader terrain, but ‘IHRM’ originated from a single organizational context; that of the multinational enterprise (MNE). Until recently, it has been preoccupied with expatriates

  • Competencies Essay

    4541 Words  | 19 Pages

    organizational performance, and to provide a conceptual framework for the analysis of human resource management in learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form of an extensive literature review on human resource management (HRM), organizational learning and human capital. ´˜ Patricia Ordonez de Pablos is based at the Department of Business Administration and Accountability, Faculty of Economics, The University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain. Miltiadis D. Lytras is based at the Department

  • No File Uploaded Essay

    1087 Words  | 5 Pages

    Assignment 1: Systems Consideration in HRIS Sharon Robinson Strayer University HRM 520 October 27, 2013 Dr. Leslie Wills Systems Consideration in HRIS Use the internet to research and evaluate two (2) commercial HR database systems for your organization. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each system and, based on your knowledge of human resources and database systems, propose one (1) package that would fit the needs of your organization. Suggest three (3) specific reasons

  • Case Study: Chapter 4 – Nestlé

    1118 Words  | 5 Pages

    HRM 560: Managing Organizational Change February 03, 2013 Discuss the organization change that Nestlé has undergone. Nestlé is a global company in an increasingly competitive environment. During the 1900’s, Nestlé began to make all the necessary changes for global expansion by “purchasing local subsidiaries in foreign markets” (Palmer, 2009, p. 109). The start of World War I marked more organizational changes for Nestlé. The demand for milk presented a great opportunity that was not ignored

  • Hris Essay

    1272 Words  | 6 Pages

    Systems Consideration in HRIS Karl Richard Strayer University HRM 520 / HR Information Systems October 27, 2013 Dr. Leslie Wills HRIS Systems Being a Human Resources or a manager of a business a HRIS system is a benefit that everyone needs. These software systems will help eliminate the paper trails that so many companies obtain with the employees files, from payroll, important documents. After so many employees have been employed at the company for many years they can have huge files

  • Systems Consideration in Hris Essay

    1195 Words  | 5 Pages

    Systems Consideration in HRIS Strayer University HRM 520 January 24, 2015 Dr. Leslie Wills  Systems Consideration in HRIS Section 1: Two commercial HR database systems The Human Resources Profession must stay up to date with technology and new software programs that will make the job more cost effective and efficient for the employer. Human resources database software typically offers a myriad of features. Some manage hiring and training while others management benefits and performance

  • International Business Question Bank with Answers Essay

    13293 Words  | 54 Pages

    15—Managing Human Resources Globally TRUE/FALSE 1. The term "HRM" indicates that people are key resources of the firm that must be actively managed and developed. ANS: T OBJ: 15.1 PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 505 NAT: AACSB: Tier 1 Communication; Tier 2 HRM 2. Staffing, training and development, compensation, and labor relations are main areas of HRM. ANS: T OBJ: 15.2 PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 505 NAT: AACSB: Tier 1 Communication; Tier 2 HRM 3. For the US-based Ritz-Carlton, parent country nationals

  • Ihrm Ai Uk Essay

    11204 Words  | 45 Pages

    Int. J. of Human Resource Management 16:1 January 2005 1 – 21 International HRM: national business systems, organizational politics and the international division of labour in MNCs Tony Edwards and Sarosh Kuruvilla Abstract In this paper we address a key issue that dominates international HRM research, namely the global–local question. The question concerns how multinationals can or should balance the pressures to develop globally standardized policies with the pressures to be responsive

  • Systems Consideration in Hris Essay

    1375 Words  | 6 Pages

    Running head: ASSIGNMENT #1 – SYSTEMS CONSIDERATION IN HRIS​ Assignment #1 – Systems Consideration in HRIS Cigi Bartlett January 27, 2013 Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) - HRM 520 Dr. Zelphia A. Brown, SPHR, Instructor ASSIGNMENT #1 – CASE STUDY: CHAPTER 4​ 2 Assignment #1 – Case Study: Chapter 4 – Planning the Needs of Other Organizations 1. Use the Internet to research and evaluate two (2) commercial HR database systems

  • Attraction & Retention Of Hr Essay

    7304 Words  | 30 Pages

    decision-making. The discussion of attraction and retention factors and strategies falls within the broad scope Human Resource Management (HRM) as a strategic and coherent approach to managing staff of an organisation [12]. HRM covers all aspects of staff management, including the resourcing of staff through attraction and retention strategies. Ensuring coherence of these HRM strategies is complex, as illustrated by Buchan with reference to nurses: "The complex interaction of pay, job satisfaction, career

  • Test-Bank-Human-Resource-Management-13e-1 Essay

    171690 Words  | 687 Pages

    interface between the human capital of the firm and its technological and financial capital in order to efficiently and effectively reach organizational goals.. ANS: B OBJ: 1 TOP: Definitional PTS: 1 DIF: Easy NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking REF: p. 4 LOC: HRM 3. When the human resources function creates a unique capability in a firm that creates high value and differentiates the organization from its competition, human resources is a/an ____ for the firm. a. intangible asset b. core competency c. critical

  • Hr in Small Business Essay

    3843 Words  | 16 Pages

    Benefits 397 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 PART VI Governance 436 Developing Employee Relations 436 Respecting Employee Rights and Managing Discipline 466 Working with Organized Labor 503 Managing Workplace Safety and Health 539 International HRM Challenge 568 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 vii Contents Preface xx Acknowledgments xxv About the Authors xxvii PART I Introduction 1 Meeting Present and Emerging Strategic Human Resource Challenges 1 Human

  • Human Resource Managment Essay

    19387 Words  | 78 Pages

    What is HRM? Human Resource Management ("HRM") is a way of management that links people-related activities to the strategy of a business or organization. HRM is often referred to as "strategic HRM". It has several goals: - To meet the needs of the business and management (rather than just serve the interests of employees); - To link human resource strategies / policies to the business goals and objectives; - To find ways for human resources to "add value" to a business; - To help a business

  • Recerch Essay

    3612 Words  | 15 Pages

    Chapter 15 Conflict and Negotiation 516 A Definition of Conflict 518 Transitions in Conflict Thought 519 The Traditional View of Conflict 519 ° The Human Relations View of Conflict 520 ° The Interactionist View of Conflict 520 The Conflict Process 520 Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 520 ° Stage II: Cognition and Personalization 523 ° Stage III: Intentions 523 ° Stage IV: Behavior 525 ° Stage V: Outcomes 526 Contents 17 Negotiation 529 Bargaining Strategies 530

  • e-Compensation Essay

    1945 Words  | 8 Pages

    e-Compensation R. Higgins Instructor: Dr. D. Richmond HRM 520 – HR Information Systems March 8, 2012 Strayer University The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using a Web-Based Compensation Tool Versus a Client-Server Based or Stand-Alone PC-Based System The advantages of using a Web-based compensation tool versus a client-server based or stand-alone PC-based system include the automated approach that replaces tedious manual processes to make any compensation program easy to manage and virtually

  • University Essay

    6277 Words  | 26 Pages

    | | |510 |BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION |Monday 26th December 2011 | |520 |FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT |Tuesday 27th December 2011 | |530 |MARKETING

  • Psychological Contract Essay

    10196 Words  | 41 Pages

    Blackwell Publishing Ltd Niall Cullinane and Tony Dundon1 Literature on the psychological contract has blossomed progressively over the last ten years to the extent that it is now firmly located within the lexicon of the Human Resource Management (HRM) discipline. Yet as this review indicates, the theoretical assumptions that seem to pervade the psychological contract literature are not without major deficiencies, which in turn pose serious questions around the continued sustainability of the construct

  • Cost Accountin Essay

    7466 Words  | 30 Pages

    different food products and the factory mange's a total of 520 employee labor. Table 3.1 Number of staff | | | | | |Description |Male |Female |Total | |Total employee |350 |170 |520 | |Permanent

  • Compensation Essay

    2590 Words  | 11 Pages

    must work it out with the supervisor first and if the problem is not resolve than they must take it to the Excalibur Supervisor to work and or resolve the issue. (Endersbee, 2009) The definition of compensation is the “Human Resource Management (HRM) function that deals with every type of reward that individuals receive in return for performing organizational tasks”. (Ivancevich, 2007) The definition of direct financial compensation is that it “consists of the pay an employee receives in the form

  • Recruiting Essay

    2942 Words  | 12 Pages

    rec Does traditional recruitment and selection hold value over modern recruitment and selection strategies? Strategic Human Resource Management GB 520 Anthony Melendez 9/9/2014 Introduction Research states that a company’s most important task to undertake is recruitment (Wilden, 2014). One of the many reasons a company recruits is not only to succeed as a business, but also to surpass their competitors. One can agree that finding good talent in today’s market is rather difficult and

  • Consumer Decision Making Process in Shopping for Halal Essay

    4636 Words  | 19 Pages

    & Hunt, S.D.. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58, 20-38. Hermann, R. O, Warland, R. H. & Sterngold, A. (1997). Who reacts to food safety scares? Examining the AAR crisis. Agribusiness, 13(5), 511-520. Halal Food Authority (HFA). (2002-2003). Safety launch halal meat. Retrieved from Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G.. (1993). Marketing: An introduction (3rd. ed). N.Y.: Prentice Hall. Leek, S., Maddock, S. &

  • Student of Hrm Essay

    4865 Words  | 20 Pages

    Personnel-Related Methods for Ensuring Fair Treatment 515 MANAGING EMPLOYEE DISCIPLINE AND PRIVACY 517 H MANAGING THE N E W WORKFORCE: Comparing Males and Females in a Discipline Situation Basics of a Fair and Just Disciplinary Process Employee Privacy 517 520 Employee Monitoring 521 HR APPs 4 U: iPods and Ethics at Work 524 M A N A G I N G DISMISSALS 524 Termination at Will and Wrongful Discharge Grounds for Dismissal 525 524 517 CONTENTS Avoiding Wrongful Discharge Suits Personal Supervisory Liability

  • Project Sdcl Essay

    13634 Words  | 55 Pages

    FOR DISTANCE LEARNING Academic Year 2006-2010 This is to certify that Preeti Chaudhary is permitted to use relevant data/information of this organization for her project in fulfillment of the POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (HRM). We wish him/her all the success. Seal of the company Signature of the competent Authority of the institute

  • The Effects of Job Characters on Working Conditions Essay

    7223 Words  | 29 Pages

    (one team, four workers), mechanical processing (7 teams, 98 workers), assembly (4 teams, 23 workers), maintenance (3 teams, 9 workers), R&D (one team, 7 workers), and quality (2 teams, 13 workers) participated in this study as part of a larger HRM project. Several authors (e.g., Rothstein, 1990) have argued that new employees should be evaluated only after a certain time has passed because supervisors need adequate opportunities to observe subordinates’ behaviors. In this study, the employees

  • Supply Chain Management Essay

    25860 Words  | 104 Pages

    Marks : 70 1 ) Define HRM and explain the duties and responsibilities of HR manager in changing economic environment. 2 ) Explain the difference between recruitment and selection. Discuss the process of selection in detail. 3 ) What is training and development? Explain the various methods of training in detail. 4 ) Explain performance appraisal and discuss the modern methods of performance appraisal. 5 ) “Compensation management plays a vital role in various aspects of HRM”. Discuss. 6 ) What is

  • Ministry of Health Essay

    20705 Words  | 83 Pages

    4. Strengthen management and leadership at all levels Strengthened human resource planning, management and development systems at all levels 1. Develop and implement HR policies, plans and strategies 2. Strengthening the capacity and management of HRM/HRD 3. Support existing professional (regulatory) bodies and the creation of others The implementation these activities will be time-consuming work needing dedication and focus of HR staff and managers across the health sector. The plan is partially

  • Chic Paints Ltd Essay

    6976 Words  | 28 Pages

    The five directors, with shareholding being split as follows: Greg Pearce (Managing Director) – 25% Dave Whistler (Finance Director) – 25% Ruth Jones (Sales Director) – 20% Ahmed Khan (Production Director) – 15% Susan Mather (HRM Director) – 15% 3.2. CPL have customers from the UK and abroad and they only sell to companies involved in the manufacture or repair of boats, cars and industrial equipment (Not general public). The company has 80 regular customers, and this repeat

  • Principal Agent Theory Essay

    32478 Words  | 130 Pages

    Human Resource The recent shift of the HRM field toward a more macro orientation has resulted in significant and important contributions to the field. However, as a function of the "newness" of this area of study, the work has been somewhat limited in its development of an underlying construct. Rather than considering an organizational level "people management" construct, to date, researchers have emphasized the activities of the HRM department. These HRM strategies or "bundles" of practices may

  • Contemporary Challenges of Human Resource Planning in Tourism and Hospitality Organizations Essay

    9068 Words  | 37 Pages

    of Indian luxury hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(2), 367–374. Kaufman-Scarborough, C., & Forsythe, S. (2009). Current issues in retailing: Relationships and emerging opportunities. Journal of Business Research, 62(5), 517–520. Kline, S., & Harris, K. (2008). ROI is MIA: Why are hoteliers failing to demand the ROI of training? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(1), 45–59. Kline, S., & Hsieh, Y. (2007). Wage differentials in the lodging industry

  • Fgrtrtgb Essay

    49744 Words  | 199 Pages

    33 hrs. Required Courses* (15 hours) CH 585 GS 511 CH 510 CH 550 CH 560 Principles of Chemistry for Teachers Nuclear Science Development of Modern Chemistry Analytical Methods Selected Topics in Chemistry Electives* (6 hours) CH 586 GS 550 CH 520 CH 530 CH 540 CH 570 CH 500 CH 506 Principles of Chemistry for Teachers Research and Thesis Advanced Inorganic Laboratory Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Advanced Organic Chemistry Modern Theoretical Chemistry Science and Environment Astronomy TOTAL

  • Cost Allocation, Customer-Profitability Essay

    14845 Words  | 60 Pages

    |Pulp |Paper |Fibers |Total | |(5) Division margin |$2,400,000 |$ 7,100,000 |$ 9,500,000 |$19,000,000 | |HRM costs (alloc. base: no. of employees) | 630 ,000 | 450,000 | 720,000 | 1,800,000 | |= (2) [pic] $1,800,000 | | |

  • Competency Essay

    61761 Words  | 248 Pages

    Figure 12: Relationship between Competency, Knowledge, Skills and Performance ........... 19 Figure 13: Competency Matrix.................................................................................................. 28 Figure 14: Competency Centric HRM System ......................................................................... 30 Figure 15: Human Resource Management Role in Organization ........................................... 32 Figure 16: Aim of Competency Based Search and Selection Process

  • Business Essay

    31151 Words  | 125 Pages

    |* |- | |Until October 1, 2005, President of Nokia |2004 |717 000 |479 509 |* |- | |Corporation and Head of Customer and Market |2003 |711 279 |520 143 |* |- | |Operations | | | | | | |Anssi Vanjoki, EVP and General Manager of |2005 |476

  • Case Study

    9730 Words  | 39 Pages

    Haryana. As far as software is concerned, some of the applications that are running on its network are billing, fraud management, revenue assurance and data warehousing. They also have some internal-facing applications like Oracle Financial and Oracle HRMS. The case for CRM Initially, when Bharti started operations, the whole system was run manually. "At that point of time only 40 percent of our customer issues were getting resolved-this has now gone up to about 90 percent," reveals Gangotra. "It

  • Juno Guide Book Essay

    66692 Words  | 267 Pages

    Contents [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [0] Acoustic Piano Electric Piano KBD & Other Keyboards ORGAN (Ky) (Clav, Harpsichord, etc.) BEL BELL Bell, Bell Pad MLT MALLET Mallet ORG ORGAN Electric and Church Organ ACD ACCORDION Accordion HRM HARMONICA Harmonica, Blues Harp GUITAR (Gt) AGT AC.GUITAR Acoustic Guitar EGT EL.GUITAR Electric Guitar DGT DIST.GUITAR Distortion Guitar ORCH (Oc) STR STRINGS Strings ORC ORCHESTRA Orchestra Ensemble HIT HIT&STAB Orchestra Hit, Hit WND WIND Winds (Oboe

  • Mr Your Mum Essay

    13091 Words  | 53 Pages

    to invest in people who are able to reward more contribution within certain abundant working years. So, the retirement could be seen as an official end because the meaning of retirement is ‘the end of the working life’ ( Everingham, et al., 2007:520). Another factor would shorten women’s working time is childbearing and childcare. Most of career women aware it is the biggest hurdle that women have to leap is managing kids and a career. This survey shows women could pay more attention to their

  • Bardoli Sugar Essay

    15896 Words  | 64 Pages

    draught fan are installed per boiler. K. Feed Water Treatment: No water softening plant Feed water is treated by adding Alf loc, Washing soda & Caustic soda flake. L. Economizer & Feed water heaters: In WIL 60 T/hr. Economizer is provided H.S. 520 Sq. meters & For TEXMACO 50 TPH Boiler 429 M. sq. Economizer. M.Main Fuel: Bagasse N. Auxiliary Fuel: Furnace Oil & Firewood O. Chimney: Total four Chimneys are there, All Chimneys are of steel fabricated self-Supported type. • 1 No. 3.5 MtrsM5

  • Mittal Essay

    106599 Words  | 427 Pages

    Trinidad and Tobago . . . . . . . . Caribbean Ispat Limited (‘‘CIL’’) United Arab Emirates . . . . . . . LNM Marketing FZE (‘‘LNM Marketing’’) JSC Mittal Steel Temirtau Mittal Steel Europe S.A. Mittal Steel Skopje (CRM) a.d. Mittal Steel Skopje (HRM) a.d. Mittal Steel L´zaro C´rdenas, a a S.A. de C.V. Mittal Steel Poland S.A. Mittal Steel Galati S.A. Mittal Steel Roman S.A. Mittal Steel Iasi S.A. Mittal Steel Hunedoara S.A. Mittal Steel South Africa Limited Mittal Steel Point Lisas Limited LNM

  • Tour Laws Essay

    181384 Words  | 726 Pages

    acquired over the person of the defendant or over the property which is the subject of the proceedings; (3) the defendant must be given an opportunity to be heard; and (4) judgment must be rendered upon lawful hearing.9 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ibid., p. 520. Ibid., p. 518. Ibid., p. 783. Ibid., p. 282. Raquiza vs. Bradford, 75 Phil. 50. Aquino, Jr., vs. Military Commission, No. 2, 63 SCRA 546. El Blanco Español-Filipino v. Palanca, G.R. No. L-11390, 37 Phil. 921, 934 (1918). 7 Application of the

  • Solar Energy Essay

    87814 Words  | 352 Pages

    4H), 7.34–7.32 (m, 2H), 7.21–7.17 (m, 4H), 7.06–7.03 (m, 3H), 6.87–6.85 (m, 2H), 3.00 (s, 6H). 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) d, ppm: 190.3, 153.4, 146.2, 144.2, 131.3, 129.7, 129.1, 127.5, 127.3, 126.5, 126.4, 126.3, 125.1, 119.4, 113.8, 113.1 and 40.8. HRMS (ESI) calcd for C27H24N2O (M + H+): 393.1967, found: 393.1982. 2.5.2. Synthesis of XS24 To a mixture of compound 3a (0.100 g, 0.255 mmol) and cyanoacetic acid (0.042 g, 0.5 mmol) was added acetonitrile (8 mL), chloroform (4 mL) and piperidine (50 lL)

  • Outsourcing Essay

    90055 Words  | 361 Pages

    outsourcing – which set a level competitive playing field between countries and a policy response which gives the workers made redundant through outsourcing, the due respect they deserve. References Budhwar, P., Varma, A., Singh, V., & Dhar, R. (2006). HRM systems of Indian call centres: An exploratory study. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(5), 881–897. Dittrich, C. (2005). Bangalore: Divided city under the impact of globalization. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution

  • Research Essay

    230924 Words  | 924 Pages

    They have to be integrated with other human resource management (HRM) strategies, especially those concerning human resource development – reward management is an integral part of an HRM approach to managing people. Effective reward management is based on a well-articulated philosophy – a set of beliefs and guiding principles that are consistent with the values of the organization and help to enact them. It recognizes that if HRM is about investing in human capital from which a reasonable return

  • E-Business Management Essay

    142464 Words  | 570 Pages

    price discrimination. References Adamic, L. A. and Huberman, B. A. (1999). Growth Dynamics of the World Wide Web, Nature, 401, September, p. 131. Amit, R. and Zott, C. (2001). Value Creation in E-Business. Strategic Management Journal, 22, pp. 493–520. Bakos, Y. (1998). The Emerging Role of Electronic Marketplaces on the Internet, Communications of the ACM, 41(8), August, pp. 35–42. Bhatt, G. D. and Emdad, A. F. (2001). An analysis of the virtual value chain in electronic commerce. Logistics Information