Chapter 13: RNA and Protein Synthesis * 13.1 RNA * The role of RNA * How does RNA differ from DNA? : There are three important differences between RNA and DNA: (1) the sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose, (2) RNA is generally single-stranded and not double-stranded, and (3) RNA contains uracil in place of thymine * Comparing RNA and DNA: there are three differences in RNA and DNA. * Functions of RNA * Messenger RNA: type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell * Ribosomal RNA: type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes * Transfer RNA: type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis * RNA synthesis * How does the cell make RNA? : in transcription, segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules. * Transcription: synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template * RNA polymerase: enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template * Promoters: specific region of a gene where RNA polymerase can bind and begin transcription * RNA editing * Introns: sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein * Exons: expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein * 13.2 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis * The genetic code * What is the genetic code, and how is it read?
AP Biology-10/20/12 Unit 12 Free Response Question: The process of making a protein begins in the nucleus and ends in the cytoplasm. a.) Describe the process of protein synthesis in terms of molecular structure of the nucleic acids b.) Explain how a new phenotypic characteristic may result from a change in DNA (mutations) Proteins are used as a structural material in cells and in enzymes, and they have jobs to do in every part of an organism, even in the organism’s genes. The way in which proteins are created for the purpose of genetic inheritance is in protein synthesis.
The primary step to determine the genetic effect removing these genes, known as the knock out (KO), have is to extract RNA from the prokaryote, more specifically its messenger RNA (mRNA). Ribonucleic acid, RNA, is the single stranded equivalent of DNA and is just as requisite for prokaryotic and eukaryotic existence. Messenger RNA, mRNA, transcribes the genetic material of DNA and brings it to the ribosomes throughout the cell to produce specific proteins, known as translation. For biotechnologists, it is critical to obtain mRNA in order to understand what material is being translated. Unfortunately, since there is no specific process to distinguish mRNA specifically between other types of RNA, such as transfer RNA, a general extraction of RNA becomes necessary.
Task 2 of Biochemistry Susan Ferreira Western Governor University GRT1- 208.5.2-01 .02 ,04-07 Task 2 of Biochemistry Task A. Molecular level of and RNA and DNA are nucleotides, a chemical structure used to make proteins, the building blocks of the living organisms designed to ensure successful reproduction. A prion is a protein that doesn't require a nucleotide to reproduce. When an abnormally folded prion protein runs into a normal prion protein, the normal protein transforms into another abnormally folded disease-causing prion. The result is a cascade of mutated protein. In cases of inherited prion disease, it's the gene mutation that causes abnormal folding of prion protein.
When a protein is made in a cell, it is called gene expression, for the gene was shown. As the DNA is unwound and unzipped, transcription is occurring. Transcription is the process of going from DNA to mRNA. RNA is half a strand of DNA that uses the base uracil instead of thymine. mRNA is a type of RNA that is formed by putting complementary bases on the unzipped portion of DNA.
10.5 DNA replication proceeds in two directions at many sites simultaneously A) The enzymes that link DNA nucleotides to a growing daughter strand, called DNA POLYMERASE. B) DNA ligase then links the pieces together into a single DNA strand. C) In addition to their roles in llinking nucleotides togeter, DNA polymerases carry out a proofreading step that quickly removes nucleotides that have base-pairing incorrectly during replication. 10.6 The DNA genotype is expressed as proteins, which provided the molecular basis for phenotypic traits. A) The chain of command is from DNA in the nucleus of the cell to RNA to
| DNA produced by reverse transcriptase from abiotically produced RNA. | b. | DNA molecules whose information was transcribed to RNA and later translated in polypeptides. | c. | self-replicating, catalytic RNA molecules. | d. | RNA produced by autocatalytic, proteinaceous enzymes called ribozymes.
DNA - the molecule, expand Deoxyribonucleic Acid, DNA is the genetic code in most human cells. It codes for all structures and functions within a living body. DNA has a double strand helix structure. The two strands are made up from a sugar-phosphate backbone with a base pair in the middle. These bases are, C G T A each base has a complimentary base e.g.
This enzyme can work on 5; 3; direction so it duplicates the leading stand continuously. The DNA ligase enzyme repairs the single strand breaks into duplex DNA in living organisms using the complimentary strands. The Okazaki fragments are being shaped and connected together to form short double stranded DNA sections. C. In decoding the genetic information of a cell, transcription is the first step. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase, builds RNA molecules that complement a portion of one of the 2 strands of the DNA helix.
After comparing DNA and RNA, I notice that the main difference between DNA and RNA is the sugar present in the molecules. The sugar in a RNA molecule is known as ribose and the sugar present in a molecule of DNA is known as a deoxyribose. Deoxyribose sugar in DNA is less reactive because of its C-H bonds. It is stable in alkaline conditions. DNA has smaller grooves, which makes it harder for enzymes to attack the DNA.
Polypeptide Synthesis The whole process from DNA to amino acid sequence involves:- • The making of a temporary complementary copy of a gene called pre-messenger RNA. This is called transcription. • The removal of ‘junk’ base sequences called ‘introns’ from the pre-mRNA to form messenger RNA (mRNA) • The translation of the base sequence in mRNA into an amino acid sequence (polypeptide) using transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomes. Transcription & Splicing DNA never leaves the nucleus, but proteins are synthesised in the cytoplasm, so a copy of each gene is made to carry the “message” from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. This copy is called mRNA, and its production is called transcription and splicing.
The answers to these questions are DNA replication and protein synthesis. Knowledge of the structure of DNA began with the discovery of nucleic acids in 1869; that genes control the synthesis of enzymes was understood in the 1940’s. In 1953, an accurate model of the DNA molecule was presented thanks to the work of Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, and, Francis Crick. Protein synthesis is the process by which individual cells construct proteins. “Both deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA and all types of ribonucleic acid or RNA are involved in the process,” (What Is Protein Synthesis, 2013.)
Name Class Date RNA and Protein Synthesis Information and Heredity Q: How does information ﬂow from DNA to RNA to direct the synthesis of proteins? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: WHAT I LEARNED SAMPLE ANSWER: 13.1 What is RNA? RNA is a nucleic acid that carries coded genetic information. RNA contains the sugar ribose and the nitrogenous base uracil instead of thymine. It is usually a single strand.
Central Dogma of Molecular Genetics/Biology: * James Watson; DNA RNAPROTEIN * Francis Crick named it C.D.M.G. * Dogma=Truth/belief * One gene – one polypeptide * Polypeptide: Non-functioning string of amino acids. * Protein: folded chain of amino-acids 3. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: Transfer of DNA’s code into RNA and then RNA’s code to protein. Two phases: * Transcription: DNA RNA * Translation: RNA Protein 4.
An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. Each strand of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell. Before 1977, the mRNA molecules that transport information from DNA to ribosomes (the parts of cells that make proteins) were believed to be copies of the DNA, with each mRNA molecule aligning exactly with the stretch of DNA that coded for it. Then, in 1977, US biologist Phillip Sharp and British biologist Richard Roberts both discovered that genes are often separated or split by stretches of DNA that don't do anything.
GRT1 Task 1 Transmission of informa/on within the cell and the role of DNA and RNA in replica/on. Process of DNA replica/on at the biochemical level Enzymes • DNA Polymerase-‐ﬁnds correct base and bonds to the original strand • DNA Helicase-‐unpackages the organism’s genes • Primase-‐a type of RNA polymerase involved in the replicaiton of DNA The role of the ligase enzyme in the replica/on of DNA ("Human DNA ligase I completely encircles and par/ally... [Nature. 2004] -‐ PubMed -‐ NCBI", n.d., p. 12-‐15) The role of ligase enzyme • Ligase facilitates the joining of the DNA strands together by catalyzing the forma/on of a phosphodiester bond. • It plays in important role in DNA replica/on and repair. The role of mRNA in transcrip/on and transla/on ("Ribosomes, Transcrip/on, Transla/on | Learn Science at Scitable", n.d., p. 182-‐184) The role of RNA polymerase inhibi/on and the death cap mushroom • The death cap mushroom a[acks the body through blocking RNA polymerase.
The Gene Theories are inherited through gene transmission. Nucleic acids hold all genetic materials for living organisms. Deoxyribonucleic Acids (DNA) are the genetic material in living organisms. Along with DNA, RNA or Ribonucleic acids is used for protein synthesis. Through Central Dogma (translation and transcription) Proteins are synthesized and when amino acids bind to the protein it gives functionality to cells.
The bases used in DNA replication are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). In RNA, uracil (U) is used instead of thymine, but in this case, that is irrelevant. Generally, in a normal human being, A is matched up with T, and G is matched up with C to makeup the complementary base pairs. An important step in the initiation of the replication process is the binding of the RNA primase. This primase attracts the nucleotides that bind to the corresponding nucleotides of the 3’-5’ strand.
It is concluded that _____________________________. Introduction Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) serves as the genetic material in all life forms excluding some viruses, wherein RNA functions as the genetic material (Rastogi & Dwivedi, 2007). Information needed for protein synthesis is stored by DNA. This ability is based on its structure which is comprised of a linear sequence of nucleotides that consists of a nitrogen base, a sugar and a phosphate group. The information to direct the order of amino acids within polypeptides, basing on the genetic code, is possessed by DNA sequences that are located within most genes.