The answers to these questions are DNA replication and protein synthesis. Knowledge of the structure of DNA began with the discovery of nucleic acids in 1869; that genes control the synthesis of enzymes was understood in the 1940’s. In 1953, an accurate model of the DNA molecule was presented thanks to the work of Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, and, Francis Crick. Protein synthesis is the process by which individual cells construct proteins. “Both deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA and all types of ribonucleic acid or RNA are involved in the process,” (What Is Protein Synthesis, 2013.)
Task 2 of Biochemistry Susan Ferreira Western Governor University GRT1- 208.5.2-01 .02 ,04-07 Task 2 of Biochemistry Task A. Molecular level of and RNA and DNA are nucleotides, a chemical structure used to make proteins, the building blocks of the living organisms designed to ensure successful reproduction. A prion is a protein that doesn't require a nucleotide to reproduce. When an abnormally folded prion protein runs into a normal prion protein, the normal protein transforms into another abnormally folded disease-causing prion. The result is a cascade of mutated protein. In cases of inherited prion disease, it's the gene mutation that causes abnormal folding of prion protein.
10.5 DNA replication proceeds in two directions at many sites simultaneously A) The enzymes that link DNA nucleotides to a growing daughter strand, called DNA POLYMERASE. B) DNA ligase then links the pieces together into a single DNA strand. C) In addition to their roles in llinking nucleotides togeter, DNA polymerases carry out a proofreading step that quickly removes nucleotides that have base-pairing incorrectly during replication. 10.6 The DNA genotype is expressed as proteins, which provided the molecular basis for phenotypic traits. A) The chain of command is from DNA in the nucleus of the cell to RNA to
Central Dogma of Molecular Genetics/Biology: * James Watson; DNA RNAPROTEIN * Francis Crick named it C.D.M.G. * Dogma=Truth/belief * One gene – one polypeptide * Polypeptide: Non-functioning string of amino acids. * Protein: folded chain of amino-acids 3. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: Transfer of DNA’s code into RNA and then RNA’s code to protein. Two phases: * Transcription: DNA RNA * Translation: RNA Protein 4.
Primer is a strand of nucleic acid that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are required because the enzymes that catalyze replication, DNA polymerases, can only add new nucleotides to an existing strand of DNA. The polymerase starts replication at the 3'-end of the primer, and copies the opposite strand. In most cases of natural DNA replication, the primer for DNA synthesis and replication is a short strand of RNA (which can be made de novo). Many of the laboratory techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology that involve DNA polymerase, such as DNA sequencing and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), require DNA primers.
Name Class Date RNA and Protein Synthesis Information and Heredity Q: How does information ﬂow from DNA to RNA to direct the synthesis of proteins? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: WHAT I LEARNED SAMPLE ANSWER: 13.1 What is RNA? RNA is a nucleic acid that carries coded genetic information. RNA contains the sugar ribose and the nitrogenous base uracil instead of thymine. It is usually a single strand.
It is concluded that _____________________________. Introduction Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) serves as the genetic material in all life forms excluding some viruses, wherein RNA functions as the genetic material (Rastogi & Dwivedi, 2007). Information needed for protein synthesis is stored by DNA. This ability is based on its structure which is comprised of a linear sequence of nucleotides that consists of a nitrogen base, a sugar and a phosphate group. The information to direct the order of amino acids within polypeptides, basing on the genetic code, is possessed by DNA sequences that are located within most genes.
An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. Each strand of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell. Before 1977, the mRNA molecules that transport information from DNA to ribosomes (the parts of cells that make proteins) were believed to be copies of the DNA, with each mRNA molecule aligning exactly with the stretch of DNA that coded for it. Then, in 1977, US biologist Phillip Sharp and British biologist Richard Roberts both discovered that genes are often separated or split by stretches of DNA that don't do anything.
Synthesis of polypeptide chains is protein The chains produce specfic proteins based on the genetic code in DNA. This occurs in two stages, which is transcription and translation. The transcription stage occurs in the nucleus where the DNA contains the cistrons/genes that code for specific polypeptides. The transcribing stand is the part of the strand that forms the cistron. The strand acts as a template and is transcribed to mRNA.
Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes Transcription is the first stage of protein synthesis by which a molecule Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is synthesised from a complementary Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In simpler words transcription is the transfer of information from DNA to messenger RNA, (Kent,2000). Before the process can begin, an enzyme DNA helicase breaks apart the hydrogen bonds binding the double helix into two separate strands thus exposing the bases of the required region; the transcription unit. A second enzyme by the name of RNA polymerase binds to a section of the separated DNA strand known as the promoting site and initiates the process of transcription. The RNA polymerase moves in the direction of 5’ to 3’ also known as downstream, unwinding the helix and pairing complementary free nucleotides within the cytoplasm of the cell to the exposed section of DNA.
After comparing DNA and RNA, I notice that the main difference between DNA and RNA is the sugar present in the molecules. The sugar in a RNA molecule is known as ribose and the sugar present in a molecule of DNA is known as a deoxyribose. Deoxyribose sugar in DNA is less reactive because of its C-H bonds. It is stable in alkaline conditions. DNA has smaller grooves, which makes it harder for enzymes to attack the DNA.
D) One strand is positively charged and the other is negatively charged. E) One strand contains only purines and the other contains only pyrimidines. 17) It became apparent to Watson and Crick after completion of their model that the DNA molecule could carry a vast amount of hereditary information in which of the following? AA A) sequence of bases B) phosphate-sugar backbones C) complementary pairing of bases D) side groups of nitrogenous bases E) different five-carbon sugars 37) What is the function of DNA polymerase III? CC A) to unwind the DNA helix during replication B) to seal together the broken ends of DNA strands C) to add nucleotides to the end of a growing DNA strand D) to degrade damaged DNA molecules E) to rejoin the two DNA strands (one new and one old) after replication 30) Eukaryotic telomeres replicate differently than the rest of the chromosome.
Basically, DNA controls protein synthesis. The complex and precise process of protein synthesis begins within a gene, which is a distinct portion of a cell's DNA. DNA is a nucleic acid which is made up of repeating monomers, called nucleotides, and in the case of DNA, these individual monomers consist of a pentose sugar, a phosphoric acid and four bases known as adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. DNA is a double stranded polymer, which has a twisted ladder like