Right to Counsel Elsie M Farias CJA 364/ Criminal Procedure March 27, 2013 Professor Horwath Right to Counsel The Sixth Amendment of the United States constitution grants the right of a person accused of a crime the right to counsel to aid and represent themselves. This is known as the Right to Counsel. The Right to Counsel is founded on the Right to a fair trial. If a defendant is unable to retain their own counsel, they have the right to request one to be appointed to them. The defendant also has the right to not retain or request a lawyer and this turns their representation to Pro Sea which basically means one waives all their rights.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a series of birth defects such as physical, mental, behavioral and learning problems caused by the mother drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Kenneth Jones and David Smith at the University of Washington in Seattle officially identified Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in 1973 (Golden 1). The exact reasons certain fetuses are affected and others are not, is not fully understood. CDC reports state that 0.2 to 1.5 per 1000 babies are born each year in the United States with alcohol related birth defects (CDC 1). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome can be prevented with education.
Lots and lots of babies in this time period. Pregnancies started young, and often came back to back not allowing mothers to have much time to heal from the previous. This movie portrays it as Loretta Lynn has her first early in her marriage to Oliver and having four children by the age of twenty (20). This is definitely a stand true stereotype that I can understand. Working in the emergency department of our local hospital, I see so many young girls ranging from fourteen (14) and older having babies while still being babies themselves.
It is also believed that vaccines are causing autism. Though I concede that getting vaccinated can be somewhat dangerous, I still maintain the idea that they should not be the sole reason to blame for the fact that children are being diagnosed with autism. There has been no concrete evidence that there is a direct correlation between being immunized and this neurological disorder. Generally administered to toddlers 12-15 months old, the extremely common vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella, (MMR) supposedly causes a gastrointestinal syndrome in children that are more susceptible. Such syndrome allows unspecified toxins to be released into the bloodstream, thus triggering autism.
Abortion is the termination of the entire pregnancy yet selective reduction is performed to improve the survival rate of the remaining fetuses and also the mother. Selective reduction is performed early in the pregnancy, normally between weeks 9 and 12, it is most often performed when there are four or more fetuses present, can be used to reduce triplets to twins, and with a fetus with severe defects (www.webmd.com). Infants born part of a multiple pregnancy are at increased risk of prematurity, cerebral palsy, learning disabilities, slow language development, behavioral difficulties, chronic lung disease, and death (Multifetal Pregnancy Reduction, 2013). These risks play an important role in a mother’s decision to utilize selective reduction. Maternal risks of a multi-fetal pregnancy include hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and postpartum hemorrhage (Multifetal Pregnancy Reduction, 2013).
The author talks about different medicines and the affects it has on children. He also talks about placebos and how they affect bipolar disorder in children. His main focus is diagnosing children and the treatments used when they are diagnosed. He states in his open paragraph, “There has been great public and academic interest in the diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorders (BD) in children and adolescents over the past decade, originally in the US but now extending internationally. Thus, in the US in the past decade, diagnoses of BD in children under 18 years old have risen 4000% in the community.
By this time the baby can surely feel pain. There are also many future medical issues that abortion can cause. It can increase chances of miscarriages. "A June 2003 study published by the peer-reviewed International Journal of Epidemiology estimated that about 15% of first-trimester miscarriages are attributed to a prior histroy of induced abortion" (ProCon 4). Not only can it cause physical medical issues, it can cause psycholgical issues too.
Birth Defects enable the child to be fully developed. Babies born with a meth addiction can Suffer from low birth rate, tremors, attention deficit disorder, and other birth defects. An unborn child is not protected while in their mother’s uterus, so he/she are exposed to whatever the carrier intake is. An infant who has been exposed to drugs before birth has in increased risk of dying of SIDS also known as “crib death”. Behavioral Problems: Parental substance abuse can be destructive to a family and the relationship that exists within the unit.
In addition to that there are studies that prove that breast cancer is heightened in women who had an abortion earlier in life. The harmful effects it can have on the body contradict the autonomy that one may have with their body. Abortions are discontinuous with human anatomy and hurts the bodies women were blessed with. Abortion should not become the standard in eliminating unwanted pregnancies. Women who chose to have control over their bodies should then exercise proper contraceptive practices or also partake in abstinence.
The Gillick case Gillick competent. It’s a term used in medical law to indicate that a person under the age of 16 has been deemed capable of consenting to medical treatment without the parents’ consent, or, in fact, knowledge. We will be focusing on the origin of this term – the ‘Gillick case’. Let’s start with some background information: In the early 1980’s, there were specific guidelines for doctors who might come in contact with minors – under 16’s, in this scenario - seeking birth control without their family’s knowledge. The doctor should a) be acting in the patient’s best interest, and b) attempt to persuade the girl to involve her parents.