Year 11 Biology Lab Report

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INDEX * 1 Statistical Analysis * Working with data * 2 Cell Theory * Cell theory * Prokaryotic cells * Eukaryotic cells * Membranes * Cell division * 3 The Chemistry of Life * Chemical elements & H2O * Carbs, lipids & proteins * DNA structure * DNA replication * Transcript & Translation * Enzymes * Cell respiration * Photosynthesis * 4 Genetics * Chromosomes, genes... * Meiosis * Theoretical genetics * Genetic engineering * 5 Ecology and Evolution * Communities & ecosystems * The greenhouse effect * Populations * Evolution…show more content…
Substances need to be taken into the cell to fuel these reactions and the wast products of the reactions need to be removed. When the cell increases in size so does its chemical activity. This means that more substances need to be taken in and more need to be removed. The surface area of the cell is vital for this. Surface area affects the rate at which particles can enter and exit the cell (The amount of substances that it takes up from the environment and excretes into the environment), whereas the volume affects the rate at which material are made or used within the cell, hence the chemical activity per unit of…show more content…
During prophase, the chromosomes become visible under a light microscope as they super coil and therefore they get shorter and more bulky. The nuclear envelope disintegrates and the spindle microtubules grow and extend from each pole to the equator. At metaphase the chromatids move to the equator. The sister chromatids are two DNA molecules formed by DNA replication and are therefore identical. These sister chromatids are then separated in anaphase as the spindle microtubules attaches to centromere and pulls the sister chromatids to opposite poles. As the sister chromatids separate they are called chromosomes. This means that each pole has the same chromosomes (same genetic material). Finally the microtubules break down, the chromosomes uncoil and the nuclear membrane reforms. The cell then divides into two daughter cells with genetically identical

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