World History Ap Semester Study Guide Essay

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Chapter 17 1) Describe nomadic society and its effects on trade. (pg. 408-409) * Turkish people were nomadic herders * organized into clans and related languages * Central Asia did not receive enough rain to support agriculture but grazing animals thrived on the grasses and shrubs there * Nomads drove their herds and flocks to lands with abundant grass and followed migratory cycles * Settlements were few and small * Nomads engaged in small-scale cultivation, but not able to sustain whole societies * Sought to trade with settled peoples * much commerce was small scale; need for agricultural products and manufactured goods was high * soon participated in long-distance trade networks * Nomadic society: * 2 classes: nobles and commoners * Nobles: fluid class, organized clans and tribes into alliances * commoners: tended to own herds, followed new leaders * autonomous clans and tribes * Nomadic religion: * shamans (religious specialists with supernatural powers that communicated with gods and nature spirits) * Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Manichaeism 2) Analyze Turkish military expansion including that of the Saljuks (pg. 411- 412) * Abbasids: * Turkish peoples entered Persia, Anatolia, India * From mid 8th- mid 10th century, they lived on borders of Abbasid realm which offered abundant opportunities for trade * Later, large numbers of Saljuq Turks served in Abbasid armies and lived in the realm itself * overshadowed Abbasid caliphs mid 11th century * Saljuq leader Tughril Beg was sultan (chieftan) and consolidated hold on Abbasid capital at Baghdad * extended Turkish rule to Syria, Palestine, and others * caliphs served as figureheads of authority *

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