In the mid-12th century, the Turkic ruler Saladin rose to lead the Seljuks and succeeded in uniting the fragmented Muslim armies of Southwest Asia and North Africa. To Saladin, the Christian armies were the infidels that had to be evicted. When Saladin’s forces took Jerusalem, the call went out across Europe to launch another crusade. Three kings came forward-Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, King Phillip II of France, and King Richard I, later known as Richard the Lionheart of England. Held in 1187-1192.
The progress of the empire was explosive. In 1453, the Sultan Mohamad II conquered Constantinople (renamed Istanbul) putting an end to the Eastern Roman Empire. The Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent conquered modern Yugoslavia in 1521, and conquered Hungary after his victory at the battle of Mohacs in 1526. However, he failed to take Vienna after winter forced an end to his siege in 1529. The Ottomans went on to take Transylvania and Wallachia as well.
Alexander Nevsky began the process of making the princes more powerful, and it was finished by Ivan III, who overthrew the Mongols and became Russia's first tzar Tsar: Russian title for monarch to refer Russian Ruler, Ivan III (r. 1462-1505) Teutonic Knights: Order of German Knights founded in Jerusalem who shifted their area of operation in 1211 to eastern Europe to convert non-Christians Places The Ukraine: a country in Eastern Europe Empires / Kingdoms Il-khan Empire: a “secondary” or “peripheral” khan based in Persia. The il-khans’ khanate was founded by Hulegu, a grandson of Genghis Khan, and was based at Tabriz in modern Azerbaijan. It
Catherine sought to westernize Russia and Frederick used war to bring together Prussia. Catherine the Great and Frederick the Great successfully increased their country’s power through war. Catherine the Great finished the Russo-Turkish wars Peter the Great started, gaining the Black Sea and weakening the Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Jassy in 1792 gave the Yedisan region to Russia and legitimized Russia’s claim to Crimea. Frederick fought Austria for Silesia igniting the First Silesian War in 1740 to 1742.
Continuation of History Daniela de Lara UNIT 10 Chapter Thirty-Four: By the 1930s, extreme nationalists had gained power in Italy, Germany, and Japan, which became known as the Axis powers. By seeking to exp and through military conquest, these countries began World War II. In 1941, the United States entered the war as one of the Allied powers. VOCABULARY: Totalitarianism In 1924, Joseph Stalin became the dictator of the communist Soviet Union. Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler gained power by promising to restore German strength.
George Patton-helped lead the Allies to victory in the invasion of Sicily, and was instrumental to the liberation of Germany from the Nazis Describe the significance of the key military actions listed below. Battle | Dates | Description | The Battle of the Atlantic | September 1939-May 1945 | The longest battle of WWII began when Britain declared war and ended with Germany’s surrender to the Allies. | The Battle of Stalingrad | August 23, 1942- February 2,1943 | Major battle, Nazi Germany and allies fought the Soviet Union | The North African Front | June 10, 1940- May 13, 1943 | Fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts. Axis and Allied forced pushed each other back and forth on the deserts. | The Italian Campaign | 1943- the end of the war in Europe | A military effort for Canada during WWII.
Henry V (1086–1125), great-grandson of Conrad II, became Holy Roman Emperor in 1106 in the midst of a civil war. Hoping to gain complete control over the church inside the Empire, Henry V appointed Adalbert of Saarbrücken as the powerful archbishop of Mainz in 1111. Adalbert began to assert the powers of the Church against secular authorities, that is, the Emperor. This precipitated the "Crisis of 1111", part of the long-term Investiture Controversy.  In 1137 the magnates turned back to the Hohenstaufen family for a candidate, Conrad III.
1008 - Sigfrid (or Sigurd), English missionary, baptizes King Olof of Sweden 1009 - Bruno of Querfurt is beheaded in Prussia where he had gone as a missionary 1017 - The Danish king Canute converts to Christianity 1099 - Crusaders capture Jerusalem and massacre 70,000 Muslims as well as Jews 1200 - The Bible is now available in 22 different languages 1219 - Francis of Assisi presents the Gospel to the Sultan of Egypt 1266 - Mongol leader Khan sends Marco Polo's father and uncle, Niccolo and Matteo Polo, back to Europe with a request to the Pope to send 100 Christian missionaries (only two responded and they turned back before reaching Mongol territory) 1276 - Ramon Llull opens training center to send missionaries to North Africa 1289 - Franciscan friars begin mission work in China 1368 - Collapse of the Franciscan mission in China as Ming Dynasty abolishes Christianity 1379 - Stephen of Prem travels north toward the White Sea and settles as a missionary among the Finno-Ugric speaking Komi peoples living between Pechora and Vychegda Rivers at Ust-Vim 1382 - Bible translated into English from Latin by John Wycliff Apostolic Period AD 30-100 Jesus Stephen 1st martyrs: was stoned James 1st apostolic: was
The Crusades took place between the 11th and 13th centuries. They were a series of religious military campaigns. They began after Islamic Turks defeated the Byzantine Empire and took control of Christian Holy Lands and the Christian church. In response Pope Urban II
He was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. Interesting Facts about Constantine His birth name was Flavius Valerius Constantinus. The city of Constantinople was the largest and richest city during the Middle Ages until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. Today it is the city of Istanbul, the capital of Turkey. He sent his mother Helena to the Holy Land where she found pieces of the cross that Jesus was crucified on.