Women Essay

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THE MAKING OF THE WEST Outline Chapter 1 FOUNDATIONS OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION Chapter 1: Chapter Outline The following annotated chapter outline will help you review the major topics covered in this chapter. Instructions: Review the outline to recall events and their relationships as presented in the chapter. Return to skim any sections that seem unfamiliar. I. From the Stone Age to Civilization and Empire in Mesopotamia, to 1200 B.C.E., p. 4 A. From Paleolithic Life to the Neolithic Revolution, 400,000-4000 B.C.E. | 1. People, physiologically identical to modern humans (Homo sapiens), emerged out of Africa more than fifty thousand years ago. | | 2. During the later Paleolithic period, Homo sapiens subsisted as nomadic hunter-gatherers in groups probably numbering about twenty to fifty members. | | 3. Although their small bands were most likely characterized by fairly egalitarian social arrangements, a mostly gender-based division of labor had emerged. | | 4. Limited by childbearing, women usually engaged in gathering, leaving hunting to men. | | 5. Control of fire making expanded the dietary base of Paleolithic people. | | 6. Weapons, tools, and jewelry, and traded seashells have been found in their graves, and burial rituals indicate some kind of religious belief. | | 7. Based on objects found in graves, Paleolithic societies may also have been hierarchical. | | 8. During the Neolithic Revolution (c. 10,000-c. 4000 B.C.E.), the development of agriculture in the ancient Near East (the Fertile Crescent area of modern Iraq in particular) provided the key step for the later development of large-scale civilizations because it relieved people from constantly searching for food and permitted them some leisure time. | | 9. The cycle of planting seeds that led to crop harvests was accompanied by the domestication of

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