They developed permanent settlements in the rich soil--> Neolithic Revolution. The effect of the Neolithic Revolution is increased population and regional trade. Stable food supply for permanent communities- surplus agriculture through advanced technology led to a diversified workforce. Complex institutions developed leading to a hierarchal socioeconomic structure based on class and wealth. Religion supplanted kinship groups as the political and social structure Epic of Gilgamesh (Poem)-Developmental Complex- the development of complex institutions is influenced by their environment.
To begin, it would only seem right to explain the background of Africa itself before going into the methods through which its development was affected by the geography of the region. The continent of African was one that has been said to have rain forests, but that statement has been countered numerous times. In addition, the region had seafaring trade with numerous other civilizations and deserts that both hindered, and benefited certain civilizations. The agricultural aspects and benefits of the region played a role in its geography, making it a key element in the scale of development of the region and impacting it immensely. The Nile River, in particular, was an aspect of agriculture whose impact on African societies would change the way we see it today.
From the beginning geography held a profound effect on the evolution of Mesotopamian civilization, as Mesotopamia was settled in a catastrophic area. Being positioned between two river valleys, the Tigris and Euphrates and surrounded by little environmental protection left much of Mesotopamia open to constant cultural invasions and attacks. In time Mesotopamia became home to a huge collection of many cultures. Although the older cultures customarily looked upon the newcomers as inferior, the new just as invariably contributed valuable innovations to the old. Despite separate cultures however, each civilization managed to reside, maintain, and contribute new ideas and developments along the way.
. The effects of migration; be it political, economic, environmental or social; have had both negative and positive impacts on societies in the ancient world. Therefore, Migration throughout Ancient Civilization played a large role in shaping the cultures, practices and ideas of societies for many centuries. The Indus Valley Civilization flourished along the Indus Valley from 2500 to 1500 B.C.E (Fitzsimons, 1970). At its height, the Indus Valley Civilization covered modern day Pakistan, parts of Afghanistan and most of western India (Fitzsimons, 1970).
The first is the naturally changing Australian landscape. Over thousands of years salt stored low in the soil has gradually risen to the soil level just below the root system. The second and the most common is a result of human activities and impacts by people. Since the early 19th century when farmers started to settle in Australia, the landscape has changed dramatically. Removing deep rooted native grasses, shrubs and trees and replacing them with shallow rooted vegetation for annual crops, pastures and other agriculture has significantly increased the amount of water leaking into the groundwater beneath the root system of plants.
The foundation of civilization rested on the ability to produce and sustain agricultural products that fueled the growth of populations in the area. In Mesopotamia, the salinated soil and irregular schedule of the flooding rivers made the development of civilization difficult, however through implementation of irrigation techniques, the populous of the Fertile Crescent was able to claw out some semblance of a life. From the development of irrigation, small communities of humans grew. With the growth of these communities, what we now identify with as traits of civilization arose. Things such as pictographs and social and communal norms grew into written language and written laws that were proliferated throughout the region.
Chris Mortimer AP World History Settembrino October 1, 2013 The Influence of Geography on History DBQ The land we live on is a vital part of the lives we live and this has been shown throughout history. Geography shaped the lives of people of the ancient world socially, economically, and politically. Socially, geography impacted the interactions of people and provided the tools for culture to develop. The land itself provided the early base of ancient economies through both agriculture and trade. Politically geography often determined whether a ruler maintained his empire or whether he fell.
In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the extent to which human activities, such as deforestation and fossil fuel burning, have directly or indirectly changed the biogeochemical and physical processes involved in determining the earth's climate. These changes in atmospheric processes can disturb a variety of ecosystem services that humans depend upon. Humans clearly disturb many, if not all biogeochemical cycles and in the process threaten many ecosystems. In recent years human activities have directly or indirectly affected the biogeochemical cycles that determine climatic conditions of earth. The following summary is how human activities have contributed to disruption of biogeochemical cycles (M Moses et al., 2010): Use of phosphorus fertilizers: Human influences on the phosphorus cycle come mainly from the introduction and use of commercial artificial fertilizers.
Factors of concern, such as ecosystem composition and pathogen virulence, are said to be related to climate changes. Climate change will have significant effects on wildlife, domestic animal, and human diseases, according to scientists. There is scientific agreement that the world’s climate is changing and that the evidence demonstrates that global warming and climate changes are happening. It is anticipated that continuing changes to the climate will have serious negative impacts on public, animal and ecosystem health due to extreme weather events, changing disease transmission activities, new and old diseases, and changes to habitat that are important to wildlife conservation. It’s very important to know that the majority of recent emerging diseases have a wildlife origin.
When the course of history is changed forever in a political social or cultural way far beyond the way it was before it is considered a turning point. About 10,000 years ago the Ice Age came to an end. Thanks to a warming trend the world heats up and the climate become warmer and drier, animals become extinct as fast as plants and new species are being introduced in some places. For example new wheat was spreading in the Southeast and Wooly Mammoths were becoming extinct. When the Ice Age comes to an end the world heats up introducing new species, new tools, and new ways to live, all these changes are introducing the Neolithic Revolution.