With Reference to a Named Country, Evaluate Attempts to Manage Population Change (15 Marks) Essay

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With reference to a named country, evaluate attempts to manage population change (15 marks) In 1979 the One Child Policy in China was introduced by the Communist government in an attempt to control China’s rapidly rising population under Chairman Mao (it had doubled in 50 years). A consequence of this exponential rise was the 30 million who died in the 1960/70s due to drought, changes in agriculture and over-population. 20% of the world’s population are only able to live on 7% of the world’s arable land. This is because of parts of China which are inhabitable including the Tibetan Plateau which is too cold, too steep for settlement; the Gobi desert which is affected by the rain shadow effect. On the other side of the spectrum the South-East of China attracts many more people as there is a temperate climate which allows settlement and agriculture. There is also the pull factor of trade and jobs in the big cities. When the policy came in it had to be enforced by the government and in order to do this the government did a number of things. Firstly they gave economic incentives such as free education, private housing and pension and family benefits to people who adhered to the policy. If they broke the laws of this policy the punishments were fines up to 15% of the family’s income and abortions of the child. The government made people apply for state permission to marry as well as being visited by family-planning officials and being watched by the ‘granny police’ (this would be where the older women in communities checked up on families in the neighbourhood and report any miss-doings). The benefits of this policy were that it did what it set out to do and that was to reduce the birth rate. Overall, the implemented policy reduced approximately 400 million births. With the problems of over-population diminishing, the standard of living got higher as the GDP shot

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