2. A more sophisticated statistical test such as the Park test, Breusch-Pagan test, Glejser test, White test, etc. (we do not cover these tests in this course). Correcting a Regression Analysis for Heteroskedasticity: If Heteroskedasticity is present, we can
Review Questions - 2: MGMT 3101 (For Final Exam) Section I: (True or False) 1. Hypothesis testing is a procedure based on sample evidence and probability theory used to decide whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement and should be not be rejected or is unreasonable and should be rejected. 2. An alternate hypothesis is a statement about a population parameter that is accepted when the null hypothesis is rejected. 3.
Quantitative psychological research is where the research findings result from mathematical modeling and statistical estimation or statistical inference. Since qualitative information can be handled as such statistically, the distinction relates to method, rather than the topic studied. There are three main types of psychological research: 1. Correlational research In statistics, dependence is any statistical relationship between two random variables or two sets of data. Correlation refers to any of a broad class of statistical relationships involving dependence.
Surveys allow researchers to predict and describe people’s opinions, attitudes and preferences by computing a correlation coefficient and determining the strength and direction of the relationship between the two naturally occurring variables. The correlation coefficient does not reflect nonlinear relationships between variables. If a relationship between two variables is not linear, then the correlation coefficient will be of little use. Correlation study produces three possible results: a positive correlation, a negative correlation, and no correlation, also referred to as zero correlation. A visual representation of the data can be made on a scatter gram/plot and a linear relationship exists when the graph showing the relationships between the two variables results in a straight line, or something very near a straight line.
Behaviour such as removing personal clothing in a public place isn’t something most people would normally do. This is seen as “non typical” behaviour, and would not normally be associated with an individual who would describe themselves as functioning on an acceptable social and mental level. “However this explanation depends on the desirability of a particular behaviour or psychological ability. It is statistically rare to be classified as a genius, but this could be seen as a desirable quality and does not indicate clinical abnormality (Cardwell et al 2006). Therefore although some infrequent behaviour may be classed as abnormal, in view of this, that then proves that not all infrequent behaviour can be classed as abnormal.
1. THE NATURE In cases of perfect linear relationship or perfect multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we cannot obtain unique estimates of all parameters. Since we cannot obtain unique estimates, we cannot draw any statistical inferences about them from a given sample. Estimation and hypothesis testing about individual regression coefficients are therefore not possible. It is a dead end issue.
Five Steps of Hypothesis Testing The basic logic of hypothesis testing is to prove or disprove the research question. By only allowing an error of 5% or 1% and making correct decisions based on statistical principles, the researcher can conclude that the result must be real if chance alone could produce the same result only 5% of the time or less. These five steps consists of all the decisions a researcher needs to make in order to answer any research question using an inferntial statistical test. 1. STATING THE RESEARCH QUESTION.
In reality, it is very unlikely that the above criteria are all met in a population, but the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is still useful as it functions as a null hypothesis. If the expected frequencies of the genotypes differ from that predicted from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium significantly, we could conclude that some aspects in the assumptions of the equilibrium are not fulfilled. In a wild population, there usually exists natural selection and this is the main driving force of changing allele and genotype frequencies. For natural selection to occur, there must exist differential fitness between genotypes, i.e. individuals with different genotypes have different chances of survival.
Society is very complex and in practice it would be impossible to control variables that may influence a situation. Therefore although the ability to control variables in laboratory conditions may be seen as a positive/ advantageous, it on the other hand produces a completely artificial environment which would likely never take place in reality. In this sense field experiments would be a better experimental method as favoured by
These being linguistic, logical and some factors of spatial intelligence. Other aspects of intelligence included in his theory, which intelligence tests allegedly ignore, include; musical, logical-mathematic, bodily-kinaesthetic, personal, and more familiar linguistic intelligence (Neisser, 1996). Gardner even goes as far to claim that although current psychometric tests measure linguistic, logical and spatial intelligence, the fact that they are pencil and paper tests limit the scope of the measurement. This means that the tests may not measure a persons actual ability in the real world, such as their ability to navigate around a town (spatial ability), or to give a speech (linguistic ability) (Neisser, 1996). Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence also questions the scope of standard intelligence tests (Neisser, 1996).