How far was the war with Japan the main reason for the outbreak of the 1905 revolution? The Russo-Japanese War lasted from 1904-1905, and arose from both Japan and Russia’s desire for expansion in China. Russia suffered many great defeats in this war, against a nation that was considered to be inferior and not one of the ‘great powers’. The war was spontaneous taking place as a result of considerable dislike towards the social, economic and political state of Russia at the time. The factors responsible were both short-term and long-term with the Russo-Japanese War of 1904/05 being one of these that contributed to the outbreak of the revolution in 1905.
In January 1905 Russia was forced to surrender their Port Arthur naval base in the north of China and in the months after the Japanese army defeated the Russian army in Manchuria. These defeats massively undermined the support for the Tsar and his regime. A series of further defeats in late 1905 made the Tsar and his regime even more unpopular the made him look even weaker and gave a large encouragement to the revolutionaries. Although the Russo-Japanese war was a main factor to the outbreak of the 1905 revolution it was not the factor that kicked it off, if you like. It was certainly a factor that accelerated the revolution.
This therefore caused the Russo-Japanese War to be partly responsible for the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. Huge military defeats were caused by the Russo-Japanese War, which highlighted the weakness of the military and caused humiliation across the country, therefore contributing to the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. An example of a defeat was in January 1905 when the army had to surrender their Port Arthur naval base in Northern China, which they had possessed before the start of the war. The crushing of Russian’s military added motivation for the 1905 Revolution, as it made the people of Russia aware of the weakness of their military and ashamed to be Russian. They were losing to a nation very few had heard of and it was humiliating.
This was because government failed to provide the basics, such as food, for the citizens during the time of famine. This is what had caused the rebels to attack the government once again. The best Ming troops were later deployed along the Great Wall of China to protect the city from being invaded by any more rebels. Soon the Manchurians had come into play, and had offered the Ming commander the service to help drive out the rebels that had already invaded the city. The main problem to be faced was that once the rebels had been dispersed from the capital, the Manchurians refused to leave, and this had caused the Ming to move further down South.
Chinese civilization during the classical era, which lasted about 400 years, was marked by social anarchy and political strife. Despite tumultuous changes in Chinese leadership, which undoubtedly contributed to the chaotic state that existed, religious beliefs, mores and family values, surprisingly, remained fairly constant. The Han dynasty was the ruling dynasty overthrown during the classical era. Three hundred years of political turmoil followed. Borderland Nomads invaded and attacked China, with little resistance from the Chinese, because they did not have an organized military or a military leader.
This continued cycle of unjust behaviour towards the serfs led to the beginning of distrust and a lack of faith in the monarchy from the public. The people of Russia continued to lose their faith in the monarchy when Tsar Nicholas came to the throne – one of the turning points for the reputation of the Tsar was the Russo-Japanese war in 1904/1905. This war was particularly significant because of the humiliation Russia suffered in this time: They had expected to win the war easily, as Russia was considered a huge and powerful country compared to Japan. However, when they were defeated easily by the Japanese, it was seen as an embarrassment, as well as an example of how the Russian army was not as powerful as it seemed. This, although not
However, the Prussian army managed to defeat the liberals who were then arrested throughout the whole of Germany. This weakened Austria’s influence in Germany for two reasons. Firstly, the fact that Prussia’s army defeated the liberals and stopped the revolutions showed that they were willing to take action and that they were actually quite powerful – strong enough to stop revolutions and uprisings throughout Germany. Secondly, the revolutions affected Austria’s political dominance in Germany because Metternich, the Austrian Chancellor had resigned and the new Emperor was more focused on revolutions outside of Germany, particularly in Italy. This showed that Austria wasn’t stable and was prepared to do as much as Prussia.
Tsar Nicholas II has faced a revolution in 1905 due to social discontent, however Tsarist rule has managed to survive because of several factors such as disunity of opponents, loyalty of troops and Tsar's concessions. Disunity of opponents against Tsar has played a significant role in the survival of Tsarist rule during 1905 revolution because it was easy for the government to divide the opposing groups and crush them one by one. The lack of coordination between the opposing groups meant that the strike involving 2.7 million strikers was not as effective as it could be when working together and being able to prevent transportation of troops. Therefore the strikes without leaders of Social Revolutionaries or Social Democrats, created chaos which added worry for the government but wasn't regarded as a major threat to the government as the groups did not fight effectively. This meant that the lack of leadership of the groups reduced effectiveness of the opponents as a whole enabling the government to be able to crush them one by one and so therefore survive.
But which factor played the greatest role in the breakdown of Sino-Soviet relations in the late 1960’s? As previously mentioned, the relations between the USSR and China broke down dramatically in the late 1960’s that it eventually lead to small armed skirmishes. A famous example of this occurring was in 1969, and the fight over the Ussuri river. This deterioration of relations was largely fueled by China’s desire to assert itself as a world power, and Russia’s determination to prevent this. Conflicting national interest caused relations between the two powers to deteriorate further, as shown in Russia’s decision to double its army along the Russian and Chinese border following the border disputes.
1.) How successful was Mao as the ruler of China? China had currently many problems at the time. To face the problems he introduced the Great Leap Forward, in which communism was adapted – not altogether successfully – to meet the Chinese situation, with the emphasis on decentralization, agriculture, communes, and contact with the masses. - The country was devastated after a long civil war and the war with Japan: railways, roads, canals and dykes had been destroyed and there were chronic food shortages.