• Quantitative evidence – recorded crime levels over time • Qualitative evidence – Interviews, observations & surveys • Increased reporting of crime (Maguire 1997) • Offenders as % population by gender & age • Area where we live – (Social Trends, 2002, pp.154-5). • Crime by ethnicity • British Crime Survey 1982 – Men/Women/age groups Conclusion: • Key point summary • Perception of crime and actual likelihood R6113606 What forms of evidence have been used by social scientists in studies of crime? Crime is interpreted in many different ways, it is therefore important to establish what the term ‘Crime’ actually means. Crime is an act that may be punishable by law, is injurious to the public and or evil. There appears to be a difference between how social scientists would look at crime and how the general public would look at crime.
Different sociologists have presented different theories and concepts to explain what drives a person to commit a crime, and research and statistics give us an idea of the type of crimes committed and the places that they’re most likely to occur. However, these statistics can prove to be misleading as not all crime is reported to or recorded by the police. This can be referred to as the ‘hidden figure’, and it differentiates between the official crime rate and the real rate. Despite this, they do prove to be worthwhile in the fact that they display trends and patterns of crime. Sociologists use three different methods to measure crime; each method provides us with particular information and as in all systems of data collecting, there are strengths and weaknesses to the method.
However subcultural theorists developed this idea claiming that people experiencing strain seek different forms of success. More specifically Cloward and Ohlin put forward the idea of the 'illegitimate opportunity structure’, which they used to explain subcultural crime. This structure was operable outside of the mainstream structure and ultimately lead to the attainment of success and money through deviant means. For example, Cloward and Ohlin argued that organized crimes such as the drugs trade could be explained by failures in mainstream capitalism. Cloward and Ohlin argue, that the majority of criminals involved in the drugs trade were unable to succeed within capitalism and were driven to an illegitimate means of obtaining wealth.
The origin of social disorganization theory can be traced to the work of Shaw and McKay, who concluded that disorganized areas marked by divergent values and transitional populations produce criminality. Strain theories view crime as resulting from the anger people experience over their inability to achieve legitimate social and economic success. These theories hold that most people share common values and beliefs but the ability to achieve them is differentiated throughout the social structure. The best known strain theory is Merton's, which describes what happens when people have inadequate means to satisfy their needs. Cultural deviance theories hold that a unique value system develops in lower class areas.
Crime helps economy by creating a jobs for law enforcement officers, psychiatrists, probation officers, etc. It also proofs that government does not have full control over USA citizens. By decreasing crime rates in the USA we can improve security of the country and make citizens feel safer, but on the other hand it will decrease work load of the law enforcement. When analyzing crime rates by conflict theory we can notice that conflict theorist believe that
How far do sociologists agree that the key cause of crime in society is relative deprivation? Criminal activities have been happening for many years and happen for a variety of reasons and sociologists believe that to some extent, relative deprivation is the key cause of criminal behaviour in today’s society, however there are other aspects which could affect crime rates such as sub – cultural theories, the opportunity structure and inadequate socialisation. Relative deprivation is the occurrence of groups or individuals being unfairly judged with people similar to them. For example a young man who wants to live a flash lifestyle with expensive cars, lots of money and a nice house because he was educated with others who have grown up to experience these things. As he is unable to achieve these luxuries through work, he may turn to criminal activity because he wants to be like his peers as he feels pushed out.
Models of Organized Crime Joann Harris CJA/384 February 19, 2012 Models of Organized Crime This paper will include a comparison of the distinctions between the bureaucratic organization and the patron-client organization. There will also be included the similarities and the differences between the two main models of organized crime and why the models are very important for understanding organized crime. A discussion of the research and citation of the crime organizations that are examples of each type of organization will follow. Finally a discussion of which type of organization fulfills its goals a greater percentage of the time as opposed to the other type of organization. Comparison between bureaucratic and patron-client organizations Efficiency is the key factor in bureaucratic organizations in these large operations or the activities, which are occurring.
The Degree of Disadvantage: Incarceration and Inequality in Education. Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social science, 651(1), 24.doi; 10.1177100027162.135503100 Fauchon, C. (2004).The Case against Profiling. International Social Science Review, 79(3) (4), 157-159. Howell, K. (2011). Criminal Law Issue: Featured Contributors: Fear Itself: The Impact of Allegations of Gang Affiliation On-Pretrial Detention.
First I would like to start by giving a brief definition of what or better said – how, criminology differs from victimology. Criminology is more concerned with the origin of crime along the extent and nature of crime. Criminology places an emphasis on studying the offender, the crimes, and the motives behind the crime. It is also the study of how the public and criminal justice system responds to the offender. Victimology plays a very important role in criminology and is used to determine what the victim’s behavior has to do with their risk of being victimized.
Police chiefs surveyed nationwide have come to the same conclusion. They declared that the most ways to reduce violent crimes is to increase the number of police officers on the street, reduce drug abuse, and create a better economy with more jobs. Lastly, the ACLU and police officers alike believe the death penalty is a waste of taxpayers’ money and does not even deter violent crime. The FBI has found that the states using the death penalty have the highest murder