This specific Marxism ideology was largely influenced by Hegel’s dialectical method; it suggested that history is a contradictory progression of ideas passing through different stages, which would finally arrive at the truth, or the Absolute Idea. The Absolute Idea is his other word for God. Marx agreed with this statement apart from the end, which he thought was very idealistic. He went on to develop the idea that in order to properly understand the real driving force of history we must look at society, the world, nature and the universe. Marx argued that the real
However, this faith has been dimmed by science causing problems. For example pollution, weapons and global warming are products of science. While science protects us from natural dangers, it creates its own risks. However the good and bad effects of science show features distinguishing it from other belief systems, known as its cognitive power. It enables us to explain, predict and control the world in a way that non scientific or pre scientific belief systems cannot do.
Adam Smith lived through a mercantile system, which he highly opposed therefore the idea of a free market system seemed to be the best solution in a time period before the industrial revolution. Unlike Smith, Marx had personal accounts of the industrial revolution, therefore he would have “anticipated the high- technology, global interests of modern institutions, dangers of consuming non- renewable natural resources and the issue of post industrial unemployment.” Both tried to create a system where everyone could be happy but their views on capitalism as the better political system conflicted. Karl Marx’s and Adam Smith’s views on capitalism differed in terms of the division of labour, competition and the class structure in society. “The trade of the pin- maker: a workman not educated to this business (which the division of labour has rendered a distinct trade), nor acquainted with the use of the machinery employed in it (to the
Utopian socialists were likened to scientists who drew up elaborate designs and concepts for creating what socialists considered a more equal society. They were contrasted by scientific socialists, likened to engineers, who were defined as an integrated conception of the goal, the means to producing it, and the way that those means will inevitably be produced through examining social and economic phenomena. A key difference between "utopian socialists" and other socialists (including most anarchists) is that utopian socialists generally don't feel class struggle or political revolutions are necessary to implement their ideas; that people of all classes might voluntarily adopt their plan for society if it were presented convincingly The term "Utopian socialism" was introduced by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The Communist Manifesto in 1848, although Marx shortly before the publication of this pamphlet already attacked the ideas of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in Das Elend der Philosophie (originally written in French, 1847) and used by later socialist thinkers to describe early socialist or quasi-socialist
Karl Marx co-wrote with Friedrich Engels The German Ideology and the Communist Manifesto. In these two books, Marx discusses his ideas on Revolution. Marx considers history as important to understanding how revolution can happened. He believes historical stages can be predicted because there are scientific laws that govern the progress of history. Marx believes he has discovered these laws.
The Enlightenment Era: All over the Map With the great leaps that were made in the areas of math and science during the 1600’s by such great names as Isaac Newton, a new era was ushered in called the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment predominated during the 18th century in England and France, although its ideals also held power in the rest of Europe and into America. Enlightenment thinkers borrowed their ideas of evidence-based rationality from Newton, who conducted his scientific experiments with a focus on evidence and concrete data. His focus was on the tangible natural world with an avoidance of the supernatural and unproven. (Kleiner 589) John Locke was also an important influence on Enlightenment thought as he focused on the goodness of the individual and his natural rights.
The point is; modern science is thought to be correct. We think we are right. Does this make everyone else wrong? Some of the earliest known philosophies on creation come from the works of Hesiod. In his Theogony he attempts to explain creation, and all that surrounds us, using myth.
Karl Popper also states that "Sociology can be scientific by following a particular set of methodological procedures" BUT it cannot provide the ultimate truth because there is always the possibility of falsification. He also talks about deductive methodology which is when sociologists make
There is an ongoing debate on whether or not sociology is a science; science is defined as a systematic knowledge of the physical or material work gained through observation and experimentation. Natural sciences have few key aims – the principal aim is to base laws and theories on objective facts that are obtained through investigation of observable phenomena. This involves using statistical techniques to test the relationship between variables, objectivity is very important in science where research and knowledge are free from bias. Positivists believe that what goes on in reality is not random or by chance, but patterned and it is science's job to observe and record these patterns in a system to be able to explain them. Compte argues that sociology should be based on the methodology of the natural sciences and that it would result in 'invariable laws' within society.
Positivists believe that just like nature, society is an objective reality made up of social facts, therefore is able to be observed and treated objectively. Also, as positivts believe society is not random but instead has a form of structure, this allows them to observe society empirically. Durkheim stated that sociology should be considered a science as it followed the scientific method. The scientific method being; a method of procedure that has characterized natural science consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses. Durkheim argues laws are discoverable and will explain patterns therefore sociologists can discover laws that determine how society works; this is called induction or inductive reasoning.