Even the capital city of Istanbul was filled with a large Christian population as well as a large Muslim population. The religious tolerance practiced by the Ottomans would help create a diverse and growing empire while also causing a spread of ideas. In contrast, the Spanish enforced strict religious laws against those who were not Catholic. Non-Catholics such as Jews, Protestants, and Muslims were forced out of the country or sent to the Spanish Inquisition. Catholicism would not only unify the Spanish but would also be a major reason for New World expansion.
The most important factor and root for all of the problems was Charles. Due to his personality and as he ruled by Personal Monarchy, this shaped how he deployed his prerogative. His policies throughout 1625-1629 were often extreme and passed as a reaction to what he felt was a threat from parliament and an act of disloyalty on their behalf, knowingly angering them. These provocative actions were very much resented by Parliament who felt he was threatening them and provoking them, thus causing the collapse within their relationship. The next most important reason for the collapse was religion and Charles’ push toward Arminianism and absolutism.
Interest in colonization of America was a very popular topic during the 16th and 17th century. Among the biggest nations who wanted to conquer this challenge and establish colonies in the New World were: Spain, France, Netherlands, and of course England. England won the struggle because they had everything they needed to conquer the New World. They had a strong strategy for colonizing, strong leaders like John Smith, and the support of investors. * England had a strong strategy for colonizing.
The last years of Henrys reign was dominated by conservative and reformist factions . In this essay I will assess the extent of the threat created due to the rivalry of factions that had affected the stability of the government. The execution of Cromwell (1940) was a success for conservatives as was also Henrys marriage to Catharine Haword. The marriage was a gateway to influencing Henry by carving out a new royal policy via Catharine H. This increased tension between the Reformists and conservatives and so the reformists took action to destroy the reputations of Cahrine H , Duke of Norfolk and Gardiner. On the contrary this shows that the disputes between these factions may imply that the King was weak and not in control thus significantly threatening the stability of government .
The most common settlement by the early seventeenth century was the mission. The primary purpose for the missions was to convert natives to Catholicism; the missionary impulse became one of the most important motives for European emigration to America. The Spanish even went as far as maiming natives who did not convert, causing some Indians to practice their original religion in private. Because European men outnumbered European women ten to one, it was not surprising that the Spanish began to intermarry with the natives. The population of the colonies came to be saturated numerically with people of mixed race, named mestizos.
Despite the increased responsibility and independence the senate became more subservient to him, “Though at first the senate showed real independence, it soon realised the risk of encroaching too far” (Scullard). This was due to the fact of the growing treason trials and Sejanus’ influence, senators afraid of their safety began to win favour by sycophancy. Whilst through his reserved temperament and ambiguous instructions led confusion to the senate steering towards deterioration, Tacitus notes he remarked them “men fit to be slaves”. This declining power of the senate under Tiberius became more obvious when he administered the empire from Capri failing to create the diarchic balance, Scullard writes “Tiberius had tried and failed and his failure was made irremediable by his retirement to Capri” illustrating the impact on Princeps becoming more dominating issuing imperial
The monarchs of Europe made fun of him, saying that it was too risky and dangerous to attempt such a voyage around the globe. Finally, Columbus arrived in Spain. For many years Spain had been caught up in civil war. As a result, they were behind much of Europe in their development. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella were anxious to prove that Spain could be as powerful and successful as their neighbor Portugal.
For those of the knightly class, it was a way of penance; by killing the “heathens” they were able to cleanse their sins. And for those of the much higher class, it was a way of eliminating rivals through false accusations of heresy that would allow them to wage war without the religious ramifications from the pope. And then for the Italian cities, it all came down to money. With their already constant war with the Arabs for control over the Mediterranean, a crusade to take land from them with the help of other armies was most beneficial. They also made sure to gain what they could, financially, from the Christian armies as well by charging a great deal for there services as transports to the East.
A breakdown in parliament then occurred because Charles realized the parliamentary attack on Buckingham was increasing so in 1625 dissolved his first Parliament in order to protect his close companion. The close relationship of Charles and The Duke of Buckingham enabled Buckingham to have security and potential access to more than Charles realised. The Cadiz Expedition is a prime example of Buckingham failures. Both Charles and Buckingham decided to attack one of Spain’s main ports to destroy as many of the Spanish fleet as possible. (Troops were raised but mostly untrained).
Rome’s emperors contradicted each other many times in history, not the least of which on the topic of Christianity. ``Some of the Roman emperors persecuted the Christians and murdered them but then Constantine came around and adopted it as Rome’s religion`` (Source: Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church). The way the different emperors of Rome jumped between religions made their citizens have less faith in them and not letting the citizens not know what to belief in destroyed unity in Rome. The adoption of Christianity disconnected the falling Western Roman Empire further from the thriving Byzantine Empire (Source: history-world.org/churchseperate.htm). This is significant because the Romans could have learned a lot from the Byzantine.