Nationalism was needed to unify Germany, but Metternich, the Austrian Chancellor of State, suppressed nationalism to prevent the breakup of the Austrian empire. With the downfall of Metternich, Austria was weakened and thus made it easier for Prussia to defeat Austria and gain complete control over the unification process, making a unified Germany under Prussian rule possible. Bismarck formed alliances, obtained land, and used realpolitik which were more policies/actions to support Prussia. However, to a lesser degree, he used the Zollverein, or German Customs Union to exclude Austria from Germany. He, therefore, would be considered more of a Prussian nationalist.
Austrian neutrality in the Franco- Prussian War was made possible after 1866 with the far-sighted leniency of Bismarck was careful in provoking the needed wars. Seeing the duchies Schwelte and Holstein as opportunities, Bismarck used the control of the two duchies between Austria and Prussia as a cause of major disagreement that caused the Austro-Prussian War; the acquirement of two duchies also provided exercises for the Prussian army and exposed
In Italy, the initiation of the idea of unification was started by Mazzini, who, with the idea of romantic republicanism, stirred up the nationalistic sentiment in his country. After the failed revolution of 1848, Camillo Cavour came into the sphere of unification and somewhat rejected Mazzini’s ideas. He believed that if Italy proves itself efficient and economically progressive, the great powers might decide to let it govern itself. Similarly, in Germany, Bismarck who was the prime minister of Prussia, believed that Germany must have a strong industrial base. Just like Cavour, he used tricky politics to unify his country and was thought to be Machiavellian.
Second, Bismarck developed good relationships with numerous powers so that they would assist Prussia and help Bismarck to isolate its enemies. For example, Bismarck made an alliance, and the benefit was shown in 1870 when Italy refused to help France in the Franco-Prussian War. Thirdly, in the Schleswig-Holstein Affair, Bismarck pretended to be friendly with Austria and just get the two duchies. He succeeded in gaining support from the Germans in these 2 duchies. Lastly, Bismarck tricked Napoleon III at the meeting in Biarritz in 1865.
Austria, however, did not want to unify at all. This caused Italian states to revolt, which was not successful and also lead to war. War with Austria united southern Europe, later leading to Italy’s unification, becoming one of the most powerful countries in Europe. Second, reforms created safety conditions, public health, free education, slave trade, etc. These economic changes promoted unity through Europe.
Prussia was able to unify Germany because of external factors to. Prussia was considered a second rate power. Hence Prussia was able to achieve supremacy in Germany without arousing hostility with other nations. The situation of Austria economically was one that helped Prussian cause; Austria was unable to modernize her army unlike Prussia. Even though internationally Prussia was aided by the fact Austria was in a diplomatic isolation.
To what extent did Austrian influence in Germany survive the upheavals of the years 1848-1850? Before 1848, Austria had a strong influence in Germany because it had politically dominated the German Confederation since 1815. However, throughout 1848 to 1850, there were many upheavals in Germany which affected Austrian influence as well as Austrian dominance. When considering the extent to which Austrian influence in Germany was affected by these upheavals, several factors must be considered. It can be said that Austrian influence in Germany was weakened after the 1848 to 1849 revolutions throughout Germany and Europe and due to the fact that they were not a member of the Zollverein.
including the strengthening of the Prussian economy due to economic reforms and the Zollverein between 1815 and 1848, and the continued growth after this period with army and financial reforms. As well as the three wars against Denmark (1864), Austria (1866) and France (1870-71). The founding reasons behind why German was unified under Prussia and not under Austria can be found in the years leading up to 1818, where the 39 states of the Confederation all managed their own economies. The states used customs duties as a way to protect their own economy from the surrounding states, restricting the development of commercial trading between states. Finally in 1818, Prussia abandoned its domestic tariff system and due to the success as a result of the abandonment other German states followed the example of Prussia.
Following this, Bismarck turned his attention to Austria as he wanted them out of the Bund so he could fulfil his vision of a unified Germany under Prussian leadership. This war between Prussia and Austria proved to be a success for Bismarck as 21 states north of the River Main formed a new German state under Prussian leadership and he also took over Schleswig, Holstein, Hesse-Cassel, Frankfurt and Hanover under Prussian control. All of this new power meant that Bismarck was another step closer towards a unified Germany as he had gained full control of the German states that had been under control by its enemy. The final reason and believed key factor to German unification was Bismarck’s victory in the Franco Prussian War. As France threatened to declare war due to Bismarck’s manipulation, this caused
These tensions started to disrupt their dual alliance with Austria-Hungary, even with a ‘Blank Cheque’ being given to them. With the Kaiser believing that foreign policy and civil war was increasingly the same, it can be assumed that aggressive foreign policy may have been set to distract the German public away from things at home and more onto how to become a strong world power. A factor that both strengthens and weakens the argument of aggressive foreign policy being the reason for the outbreak of war in 1914 is that of encirclement. Source V mentions ‘They felt encircled not merely by the Triple Entente, but also by the forces of change.’ First of all, Germany became sceptical about the alliance between Britain, France and Russia, the Triple Entente, they thought it was not going to work and did not fear it until they tried to cause problems between France and Britain with the ownership of the Balkan islands, which was unsuccessful. When Germany realised that the entente was a