Wilson (President of the USA) was dissatisfied also. He was pleased to get the League of Nations accepted, and the map of Eastern Europe was mainly drawn according to his principle of self-determination. But he found most of the rest of his 14 points ignored or rejected. Only the defeated powers were disarmed. Britain refused to accept freedom of the seas, and neither Britain, France nor Belgium would allow self-determination to the colonies in their empires.
Explain how using tariffs can show that the Americans had become more isolationist after World War IExplain how using tariffs can show that the Americans had become more isolationist after World War I The importation of goods to America from other countries was changed with increased use of tariffs by the American government. Tariffs are when there is a tax for the importation and exportation. It caused any foreign goods to be more expensive than goods produced in the USA. The Fordney-McCumber Act, passed by congress in 1922, established the largest tariffs in history of the world, with tariffs reaching up to 400% in some areas and having an overall average of 40%. This was to protect infant American industries from cheaper imports, but it also increased revenue to the government.
Additionally, USA never joined due to the fact that when the war ended in 1918, even though Woodrow Wilson pushed USA to join the League of Nations, his plans were confounded by Congress. USA was the leading power of the time, and its absence was a significant setback to the League, as now they had to rely on Britain and France who had been left weaker after WWI. Finally, the League ran on unanimous voting, meaning everyone had to agree for the action to be taken, and the permanent countries; Britain, France, Italy and Japan (who all joined in 1919), had a veto. This was a huge disadvantage because only in a situation where everyone agreed with each other, which was very rare, could an action be taken. In this way we can see that the League of Nations was a failure.
Another Major flaw was that “the country, whose president, Woodrow Wilson, had dreamt up the idea of the League - America -, refused to join it.” The league’s most powerful militaries Britain and France not only suffered casualties, but also economically as they were greatly in debt to the United States. Because of this neither country was enthusiastic to get involved in disputes that did not affect Western Europe. Therefore the League had no military might and could only enforce economic sanctions in hope that they worked against aggressive nations. All these flaws point to signs that the League of Nations was a failure. However, even though there were a few setbacks, the league was a success in many ways.
French wanted Germany weak but Dawes plan helped Germany to get stronger.+Goods were made and exports rose.+Labour force increased and unemployment dropped.+ Dawes also arranged the Dawes Plan with Stresemann, which gave Germany longer to pay reparations. Most importantly, Dawes agreed to America lending Germany 800 million gold marks, which kick-started the German economy.+HELPED ECONOMY LESS VULNERABLE AND REPARATIONS PAID ON SCHEDULEreduced reparations, reduced annual payments, eded allies supervision of payments and help secure the allied troops.No stable enough to be trusted with their own affair. | -Designed to investigate the continued toll of reparations on Germany, massive inflation and large-scale unemployment.-Young plan set total reparations of $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58 years. Reduced by 3/4-Adopted by Allied Powers in 1930-Replaced Dawes Plan-Divided annual payment, $473million, into 2 elements, unconditional part (one third of the sum) and a posponable part (remainder). -Rest was raised through transportation tax and from budget.+ It extended the deadline of the reparations, meaning that there was more time for Germany
The treaty was quite unpopular, not only with the Germans, but also with the Big Three. Even at the time, the peace-makers left the conference feeling that they had failed to make a treaty that would keep the peace and satisfy everybody. The historians have ever since blamed the Treaty of Versailles for helping the Second World War. One of the Big Three, David Lloyd George of Great Britain had two views on how Germany should be treated. He was quite satisfied with the treaty.
The election for the coalition results in 76% supporting pro-Weimar parties, showing that the opposition and threats to the government had settled. People in Germany were no longer looking for extremist parties which was proved by the failure of the right-wing coalition. In theory the coalitions should have worked well with the cooperation from all parties. However, the SPD were reluctant to work with other parties subsequently weakening the democracy. This proves the political instability of Germany in this period as they were the largest party in the Reichstag but still refused to cooperate.
The Klu Klux Klan was active and the Nativist Movement against blacks, Jews and foreigners was growing (Williams, 1954). The so called ‘new immigration’ of over 800 000 foreigners in 1920 furthered the dislike of foreigners. The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 was passed, establishing a yearly quota limiting immigration (Williams, 1954). This was later replaced by the Immigration Act of 1924, further restricting immigration. The US government also raised tariffs on US exports and imports, to and from Europe in an attempt to strengthen the economy and establish the US as economically independent (Williams, 1954).
It is clear that if the Western Powers were against Hitler, war could have been avoided, it encouraged Hitler, Hitler could never be appeased, and that it prompted the Nazi-Soviet Pact. However due to its failure the policy of appeasement, to some extent was responsible for the collapse of International Pease by 1939, but not mainly responsible. There were superseded by other factors: Treaty of Versailles, the Great Depression, role of Hitler and the failure of League of Nations. Appeasement means giving into a nations demand in order to avoid further conflict or war. World War 1 caused the death of nearly nine million people and cost huge sums of money.
A proud, military country which was ordered to disarm and hand back hard fought land. The fourteen points were unfair and instead of bringing peace, it caused tensions on both sides. The League of Nations was also a failure. Lack of support from important countries such as the USA, Germany and Russia, and their finances, caused it to collapse. Its actions and warnings were useless, the restriction of trade would affect innocent countries at the same time.