Why did Northern Ireland descend into ‘The Troubles’ from 1963 to 1968? In 1968, ‘The Troubles’ began after police brutally attacked a civil rights march through Derry, proving to be the catalyst for many years of violence to come. There were many reasons behind this descent; nationalists vs. unionists, the formation of NICRA, unionist’s fear of losing independence and Terence O’Neill’s role in government. All factors had huge influence in the Irish descent however the most important reason is nationalist discrimination, as ultimately the reason for the outbreak of violence is due to the nationalist/unionist divide in Northern Ireland that stems back to 1921, but it is only until the 1960s that nationalists have the chance to end the discrimination. Previous governments allowed such a situation to arise where the 35% catholic population in Northern Ireland had been frozen out and discriminated by unionists.
S7 also highlights the importance of the conscription crisis, which can be argued to be a result of British ignorance, or the manipulation and stirring up by the revolutionary party Sinn Fein which also had a key role in the conflict. Finally it can also be argued that other factors were involved, which allowed the Irish conflict to be triggered, such as the failure of Home Rule and the breakdown of the IPP particularly during the Ulster Crisis, and after the Easter Rebellion of 1914. To an extent, it can be argued that the main cause of the Anglo-Irish conflict of 1919-21 was nationalist extremism. Hepburn asses that 'their [extremists] first opportunity' arose during the Ulster Crisis, in events such as the Larne gun-running incident April 1914, which ultimately resulted a race between extreme nationalists and Ulster Unionists to become armed . The source describes how the extremists then spiralled
Because the American government openly supported the Christian Diem, the South Vietnamese were almost as against American involvement as the North Vietnamese by the time of the Tet Offensive. The Americans’ failure to keep the North Vietnamese at bay only added further tension between the United States and the people they were trying to help. Back in the U.S., protest was growing to the point that full engagement in Vietnam was becoming difficult. Opposition to the draft was an extremely crucial form of protest. Literally, “tens of thousands fled to Canada or Europe to avoid the draft” (Wills 29).
What were the principal obstacles to the Northern Ireland peace process between 1991 and 1998? The Peace Process was the coming together of the Irish and British governments, as well as the unionist and loyalist parties of Northern Ireland, the IRA (Irish Republican Army) and Loyalist paramilitary groups, to put an end to the violence which had taken over all aspects of life in the North of Ireland and had spread to Britain. This violence was known as The Troubles. The Troubles were an infamous series of sectarian events that are world renowned, which took place in Northern Ireland between the late 1960’s and 1990’s; although many argue that the violence is still on-going. The violence incurred between the Protestant/Loyalist majority who wanted to remain a part of the United Kingdom and the Catholic/Nationalist minority who believed they were being discriminated against and wanted to reunite with the rest of Ireland.
In this speech he talks about the violence in Longton he says, "I warned all who had been part of it that they were not the friends, but the enemies of freedom. I told them that this strike for the Charter would bring ruin, if those who claimed to be its supports broke on law". From this source we can see that he believes the violence undermined the Chartist cause. He states that if the people involved in the violence admitted to being Chartists then they would essentially just been seen as a bunch of hooligans which is evidently not the image the Chartists were going for when they needed to be taken seriously amongst a cabinet completely full of middle to upper class Ministers. Thomas Cooper clearly believed that any violence would undermine the cause.
Media coverage was also a major factor in showing the loss of direction. During the march on Washington the coverage showed the peacefulness of the protestors and showed them as civilized human beings whereas the coverage on the watts riots showed the brutality of black citizens and focused upon that and the masses of destruction and devastating statistics of it. This would automatically change perception on whether to take the civil rights bill as a possibility if all they do is cause uproar and destruction when something doesn’t go their way. Others may say the civil rights
Throughout history, many social protests have caused an uprising and agitation in an otherwise overlooked flaw or exaggerated prejudice against a certain situation. The main influences include that of Dr. Martin Luther King’s non-violent protests, and their efforts for an equal America, the anti-war movements of the 1960s or even the recent social protests against Prop 8 and gay rights. All three have in common a genuine effort to change a situation that the appointed leaders of our country fail to deem as an extremely poor direction for our country. Without the efforts of such leaders as Martin Luther King or the Anti-war movement including Benjamin Spock, the SANE committee and SPU organization, change would have not come as soon as it would
Similarly Source K exhibits the hatred Ulster Unionists felt towards Home Rule as they ‘would resort to force’ to ensure their prosperity was not compromised by a terrorists wishes to become independent. The media displayed negative views to Parnell also, Source R indicates how publications like The Times linked Parnell to Fenianism, ‘series of articles on ‘Parnelism and Crime’. Being associated with Parnell made Gladstone’s struggle for Home Rule harder, perhaps the reasons the 1886 Bill failed both houses but the 1893 Bill made it through Common’s as Parnell’s involvement in Home Rule had dramatically decreased in the years beforehand. The split in the Liberal party meant internally the party had opposition indicating that while divided amongst themselves there was no chance to defeat the conservative dominated House of Lords. Overall numerous factors contributed to the downfall of both Bills but the main reason inevitably was the immediate rejection to the Bill by the Conservatives as it opposed what they believed so neither Parnell or Gladstone could
However, the way Ireland has been ruled over the past centuries has changed numerously. The Unionists and Nationalists have both had periods of control and they have been in constant conflict about the situation in Ireland, which has sometimes led to violence in both Ireland and Britain. The Unionists, who consist mainly of Protestants, believe that Northern Ireland should be part of the UK and are happy to be governed by the British, who say that they will not withdraw from Northern Ireland as long as the majority living there want to remain British. Most Unionists will also choose to follow another smaller organisation, which despite all sharing the same main Unionist views, tend to have slightly different methods and beliefs. The first of these organisations is the UUP, which stands for Ulster Unionist Party.
Education was still largely a segregated school system in the 1960s, where Catholics and Protestants students played different sports, engaged in different community groups and so on. In 1965, discrimination through segregation was present during the decision to build Northern Ireland’s second university in the mainly Protestant town of Coleraine, rather than previously planned in Londonderry. Unionists believed the university would attract more Catholics to live there, which outraged both Catholics and Protestants shown through their ‘University for Derry campaign.’ This sparked a sense of protest and opposition to the government from both religious sectors As politics of Northern Ireland was dominated by the Ulster Unionist Party under O’Neill’s government, political tensions heightened between Unionists and Nationalists. In the 1960s, gerrymandering left some Nationalists disillusioned with the way politics was working. In Londonderry, Catholics were given less representation compared to Protestants in terms of the ratio between people and councillors.