Why Did Nicholas Ii Issue the October Manifesto?

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Nicholas II became the tsar in 1894 and he wanted to maintain an autocratic government. By 1905, many events occurred which threatened him as tsar. Political unrest began to grow within Russia caused by events, ie. the assassination of Alexander II in 1881, tsardom under Alexander III which reversed any reforms, the great famine of 1891-1892 and Nicholas II inaugural speech. A 'short, swift, victorious war' against the Japanese was encouraged by Plehve, intended to unite the country and bring about a sense of patriotism. However, this had adverse effects by causing naval mutinies, opposition to the war, shortages of everything and therefore inflation. This led to mass strikings as living conditions worsened due to the war. This escalated into a peaceful protest led by Gapon outside the tsars winter palace as a 'loyal and humble address to the tsar' complaining about their economic rights which was not a threat to his political position. However, his dismissal led to Bloody Sunday. 150,000 unarmed workers and families congregated in St. Petersburg outside the Narva gates and troops fired into them. 200 were killed and 800 were wounded which led to an outbreak of rebellion through the military, the peasantry, national minorities and urban workers whereas before, only the military and national minorities were dissatisfied. Nicholas II had continued refusal to negotiate with them, however, 'bloody Sunday' showed the threat to his position. Sergei Witte was aware of this and drew up the October Manifesto, forcing Nicholas II to sign it. This granted moderate reform and appeased them restraining them from revolution. However, it was still only a front as he refused to stick to his
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