The Potato Famine that struck Ireland in the 1840’s induced a widespread famine that consequently brought about mass migration to the United States. Before, emigration from Ireland to North America was averaging less than 5000 per year. However, between 1846 and 1851, over one million Irish migrants arrived at North American Ports. The migrants saw that new life, though hard, would be better than the ones they left behind. Hence, crises in host countries also heightened the number of immigrants in America.
Stalin achieved most of his aims; Grain production rose to nearly 100 million tones in 1937, although the numbers of animals never recovered. Russia sold large quantities of grain to other countries; this of course made a huge difference to the economy in Russia. A colossal 17 million people left the countryside to go to work in the towns this was part of industrialization which helped to improve the economy. The kulaks were eliminated, this was one Stalin’s main aims and finally, the peasants were closely under the government's control, which pleased Stalin greatly. There were many failures in collectivization, particularly the - output fell in the 1930s largely for three reasons; the peasants resented the state taking their land, machinery and livestock, so they did not work as hard and put more effort into their private plots, where they could keep any profit generated.
For example, the invention of reaper replaced stickles, turning two weeks’ harvesting into a day’s work . The yield of per hectare was sharply increased. As a result, according to Document E, “Farmer overtraded and expanded his operation beyond his means”. However, “the sudden enlargement of the supply without any corresponding increase of demand produced that alarming fall in the price of wheat”. Moreover, rapid mechanical agriculture development resulted in over-cultivation, so that the soil was exhausted.
Immigrants hold a large part in American urbanization. Twenty million Europeans immigrants, two hundred thousand Chinese immigrants, two hundred sixty thousand Caribbean immigrants, and a million Mexican immigrants came to United States between 1850 and 1940. Running away from religious persecutions, economic hardships, and political freedom, They were willing to work for less wages than natural born americans. They just wanted a better life, so did what they had to do, no matter how hard and rough it was. Immigrants, who came from Europe, arrived at Ellis Island in New York City.
Industry was a main contributor to the economy of Russia and Finance Minister Sergei Witte (1892-1903) targeted output in particular as a means of transforming the economy. One example of Witte in action is the change in coal output: in 1890 it was 5.9 million tonnes (before Witte took over as Finance Minister) but in 1900 it had increased to 16.1 million tonnes. That is nearly tripling the output in those ten years. Furthermore, in 1913 it was 35.4 million tonnes (still increasing because of Witte) however it dipped in 1916 to 33.8 million tonnes. This could be because of two things: the war or the unsustainability of his policies.
Due to the new economic policies made after the revolution in 1905, Russia’s economic developments went through a drastic change. There was an increase in the foreign trade, which was used to fuel their industrial production, and growth while their infrastructure expanded. Several successes were brought to the Russian empire with these changes. Russia’s industrial production doubled and they became the 4th largest producer of oil and steel. Despite the positive changes that occurred, the quality and maintenance of the new infrastructures were very poor, furthermore most weren’t even completed.
There was increased production and demand for goods. Freidel and Brinkley point to a booming market for scarce consumer goods in the United States and a strong European market as reasons for the boom which lasted for almost two years following Armistice.  A similar situation was happening in Ireland. Agricultural prices trebled between 1914 and 1921 in the wake of increased demand for food and animals.  A combination of high earnings in agriculture and some shortage of imported goods meant high prosperity for the trader.
Pros and Cons of An Aeging Population An ageing population can be useful to society in some areas of development but at the same time it is argued that it can also cause a considerable amount of strain to the working class and hinder government expenditure. For instance, in Britain the increase in of people over 60 is estimated to rise by 40% in the next 30 years and 13 million people are estimated to be over 65 in 2030, which in effect will be putting more strain on the government as this is when pensions are received. Moreover in 1951 there were only 300 people in Britain aged over 100 and by 2031 it’s expected this figure will be at 36,000 proving that due to an improvement in health care people are living for longer. At the same time, fertility is set to fall as women leave childbirth later and later because of their careers, meaning in the foreseeable future there will be fewer young people supporting a growing elderly population As the population ages, the ratio of non-workers to workers increases, assuming that retirement ages do not change sufficiently to offset the rise in life expectancy. In 2004, there were approximately 4 working age individuals (aged 20-64) for every 1 person aged 65 and over.
The most crucial factor was the rise in cost of goods sold. In 1980, with the influx of North Sea oil, the pound appreciated strongly relative to currencies in which Massey sold its products. Lack of alignment between production sites and market also lead to currency losses. As engine production was heavily concentrated in the United Kingdom, strong British pound increased Massey’s cost of goods sold from U.S.$2381.8 millions in 1979 to U.S.$2568.5 millions in 1980 and hurt the profit margin. Another factor was high interest rate .From the income statement (Exhibit 2), it illustrated that the interest expense rose from U.S.$128.8 millions in 1979 to U.S.$229.9 millions in 1980 despite the improvement of net sales.
There was one drawback to this though. Because even though it needed less labor to work it, with the cotton gin lots of people went into farming cotton crops in the South; where slavery had been on the decline but cotton brought back the expansion of slavery and demand for slaves. Two more advancements, yet much less exciting than the cotton gin, were invented for agriculture benefit. Cyrus McCormick created the 1st horse drawn McCormick reaper, that could harvest approximately 16 acres a day, considerably more than the 2-4 that could be done by hand. John Deere created the steel plow that could go through tough land, allowing people to be able to plow, harvest, and plant more.