With privatization of social security, workers would be able to 'own' all or a portion of their Social Security contributions in an individual account. These funds would be invested in the financial markets, where individuals would have the chance to earn higher returns. The Economic Benefits The biggest beneficiary of any Social Security privatization would be the U.S. economy. Increased investment in private enterprise-whether through stocks or bonds-should create more economic opportunities and boost domestic growth. It may also contribute to greater productivity, resulting in a lower inflation rate that would help retirement savings go further.
If the interest rate is low, it will cause more funds to be available, greater expansion and increased employment. If the interest rate is high, it will cause fewer funds to be available, less expansion, and decreased employment. Fiscal policy is an important tool for managing the economy because of its ability to affect the total amount of output produced or the gross domestic product. The first impact of a fiscal expansion is to raise the demand for goods and services. This greater demand leads to increases in both output and prices.
Such policies aim to increase the capacity of the economy to produce more goods and services by increasing the quantity or quality of the factors of production. A supply-side improvement can be depicted as a positive rightwards shift of the LRAS curve (LRAS to LRAS1). Price level Real Output Y1 Y LRAS LRAS1 Price level Real Output Y1 Y LRAS LRAS1 AN1 AN1 AP1 AP1 AN1 AN1 AN1 AN1 AN1 AN1 AP1 AP1 AN1 AN1 One fiscal policy that might be used to bring about the supply-side improvement of a larger workforce is a reduction in income tax. A fall in the marginal rate of tax, for example a reduction in the additional rate of income tax from 50% to 45% for income earned above £150,000 or an increase in the Personal Allowance threshold from £10,000 to £10,500, will increase households disposable income (post-tax take home). The resultant decrease in households’ replacement ratio (disposable income out of work ÷ disposable income in work) will encourage more people to actively seek work and thus increase the participation rate (the proportion of all those of working age that comprise the labour force and in the UK this figure is 75%) and thus increase the size of the labour force.
When the demand for U.S. dollars increases, the value of the dollar will increase or appreciate (Stone 2008, pp. 685). As a result, U.S. products become more expensive for foriegners causing a reduction in exports and increasing imports. This not only effects the U.S. economy, but also affects the economies in other countries. Monetary policies influence and are influenced by international developments, including exchange rates, and based on these market conditions the U.S. government can make strategic changes to these policies to maintain the country’s economic stability (full employment, stable growth and price stability).
Innovation impacts the cost of production as well. Even the innovation helps in lowering the cost of production and making economies more efficient – producing more outputs with the same number of inputs. Technology affects market structure. In today’s market world, technology advances more rapidly because individuals gain incentives, in the form of profits, to discover new and cheaper ways of doing things. Even the dynamic efficiency refers to a market’s ability to promote cost-reducing or product-enhancing technological change.
If we do not buy imported goods then they will not buy ours and without export revenue and foreign investments we would not be able to function financially. When exports increase so does the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). GDP is the dollar amount of all goods and services produced within the United States. When the GDP is high it signifies that our economy is healthy and stable. When companies can produce more due to demand they are able to hire more workers, which can lower the unemployment rate.
Aggregate demand is defined as the total demand in the economy. The importance of managing aggregate demand in order to bring about a sustained reduction in unemployment depends on your economic view. There are two schools of thought who both have different views on how to reduce unemployment: Keynesian economists and Monetarist economists. Keynesian economists believe that increasing aggregate demand in order to stimulate higher output of goods and services, then leads to an increase in employment. In contrast, Supply side economists believe that unemployment is caused by the supply side of the economy not functioning properly.
This is because as price falls consumers can afford more goods as their real incomes increase and they feel richer. Real income is the bundle of goods and services that an individual can purchase. As we move from A1 to A2 utility increases from U1 to U2 because we move to a higher indifference curve so now the individual can now consume a better bundle of goods. This backs up the non satiation assumption of consumption which states more is better thus when we increase consumption total utility increase. The four axioms of consumption: Transitivity, Non-satiation, Marginal rate of substitution in consumption and Completeness must be met in order to be able to draw
When there is a greater disposable personal income this will allow consumption to increase due to the money saved from the lower tax rate. Through consumption increasing this will favour economic because the gross domestic product has increased. When government expenditures are increased it will have a multiplier effect on aggregate demand. Because of the multiplier effect, the government can increase spending by only a small amount to achieve a larger, necessary increase in aggregate demand. By doing so, the economy will be able to attain an equilibrium level of real