The campaign began with the Persians capturing Eretria, placing Athens in extreme peril. The Athenians, fearing the strength of the Persian forces sent a runner to Sparta, and a number of other allies, asking for military aid. The Lacedeminians, who seem to have been a genuinely religions people, replied that they would come to Athens aid but that various portends forbade them from marching that month, having to wait until the next full moon had passed. Once the Persian fleet had landed at Marathon, the Athenians were presented with a problem, march out and confront the enemy and risk loosing the then undefended city to a naval assault or wait to be besieged on
Themistocles was the true hero; he evacuated Athens before the Persians came and defeated the Persians in a naval battle at Salamis, which forced the Persians to flee back to Asia. So all in all Leonidas’ decision to stay was overall the wrong decision and Themistocles was the true hero of
Darius died while in the process of preparing a second army to invade the Greek mainland, leaving to his son the task of punishing the Athenians, Naxians, and Eretrians for their interference in the Ionian Revolt, the burning of Sardis and their victory over the Persians at Marathon. From 483 BC Xerxes prepared his expedition: A channel was dug through the isthmus of the peninsula of Mount Athos, provisions were stored in the stations on the road through Thrace, two pontoon bridges later known as Xerxes' Pontoon Bridges were built across the Hellespont. Soldiers of many nationalities served in the armies of Xerxes, including the Assyrians, Phoenicians, Babylonians, Egyptians and Jews.  According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Xerxes's first attempt to bridge the Hellespont ended in failure when a storm destroyed the flax and papyrus cables of the bridges: Xerxes ordered the Hellespont (the strait itself) whipped three hundred times and had fetters thrown into the water.
The Greek army decisively defeated the more numerous Persians, marking a turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars. The Battle of Marathon in 490 BC was the result of Persian revenge, after the Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria involved themselves in the Ionian Revolt from 499-493 BC. According to modern historian, Peter Green, the Persians sought to attack Athens with a fighting force of approximately 25, 000 men, of both foot soldiers and cavalry. The Athenians had to bring together their whole hoplite force to defeat the Persians. The Persian force was nearly double that of the Greeks, however due to Miltiades’ reliable expertise on Persian warfare, he was aware that the most elite soldiers would fight in the centre with the weaker ones at the wings.
How it worked was that each citizen wrote a name of the man who in his opinion had the greatest power to destroy the democracy; and the man who got the largest number of ostraka was obliged to go into exile from his native land for a period of time. The Athenians, it appears passed such a law, not for the purpose of punishing wrongdoing, but in order to lower through exile the position of men who had risen too high.(Doc. D). This was good because it involved the citizens and kept one person from taking over the democracy and they couldn’t take advantage of it. Finally, citizen’s participation in the Athens Senate was open to every citizen.
The Athenians present Melians with the option of becoming a colony to them, or to be destroyed. The reason for this ultimatum stems mainly from the fact that Melians extended their support to Spartans during the Peloponnesian War and now were a potential enemy to the Athenians. Their freedom would mean a sign of weakness of the Athenians. After a long series of arguments, Athenians finally attack the Melians and defeat them. All the Melian men are slaughtered and the women and children forced to slavery.
The battle of Marathon, the first and instigating battle of the Persian wars of 490Bc, was fought and won by the forces of Athens and Plataeans, without the help of the Spartans. The Spartans had been called for in this time of need as Athens dispatched a runner to Sparta on news of the upcoming invasion. The Spartans refused to assist as they were currently taking part in their religious festival of Karnea, and would not send troops until “The Circle of the moon should be full” - Herodotus. Their exclusion from the victory at Marathon is a case against the significance of Sparta, how ever during the invasions the “Panhellic League” formed between the Greek states, with Sparta and Athens being the leading members, shows the first instances of Greek unity. It is well assumed that without the Coalition of the Greek states the Greeks could not have won the Persian war "the Greek achievement in the wars was amazing.
After the Battle of Thermopylae, the Greeks were at the mercy of the powerful Persian Empire. Athens was abandoned at the insistence of Themistocles, and the Greek defence was centred around the naval fleet at Salamis and the land army at the Isthmus of Corinth. Xerxes was confident that victory was imminent and he took the challenge to annihilate the Greek navy in the Straits of Salamis, which lie between the Greek mainland and Salamis, an island that lies in the Sarconic Gulf near Athens. Themistocles had developed a powerful Greek Navy and chose the Straits of Salamis to fight the Persians on water, as a geographical advantage was crucial in nullifying the numerical advantage of The Persians. With their superior tactical skills, the Greeks were able to defeat the Persians and take control of the waterways.
Allusion Notes Title of Story: Jason/Argonauts/Golden Fleece | Origin of the story: Greek Mythology | Summary (in your own words): Hera was angry at a man whom had taken over the Kingdom that belonged to king Iolcus, and Jason was his son. Hera used Jason to exact revenge on Pelias (the man who usurped the crown). Jason went to regain his crown and Pelias instead sent him on a quest to bring him the golden fleece. He gathered the Argonauts, named after their ship, the Argo, and included in them were Hercules and Atalanta. They came to an island of women and then Salmydessus, which was fraught with harpies.
Socrates lived during the year of 404 B.C where Athens had surrendered its hegemony to Sparta, ending the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C), and Socrates’ associates Critias and Charmides, along with 28 other non-democratic Athenians, were installed as Athens’ new governors by the victorious Spartans. However, it was Meletus, the prosecutor, Anytus and Lycon who convicted Socrates of his alleged crime against the Athenian state as they perceived him to be a potential threat. In my understanding, the one of the reasons why Socrates was perceived to be a threat was due to a misunderstanding of his intentions. Athenians viewed Socrates as a ‘sophist’ and with having close ties with Critias and Charmides who overthrew Athenian democracy and who were a set of charlatans that appeared in Greece after the war that earned ample livelihood by imposing on public credulity: professing to