Once the behavioral profile is done, the profiler can then compare this to other criminals or mental patients with the same basic characteristics. It is generally very difficult to get professional hands-on experience on how to be a profiler. Police have been able to catch a wide array of people using profilers, including serial killers. Once criminals have been taken into custody, profilers can learn even more about the criminal mind and can find possible motives, verify motives, and/or assess the defendant's state of mind. The police psychologist does more hands-on work with officers and victims as opposed to criminals.
When a performance is rewarded, a subject will produce more of it and naturally when a performance is not rewarded, a subject will produce less of it. It is also known that the government rewards crime labs verifying unknown substances to be illegal narcotics, for finding a driver’s blood alcohol content to be over a certain number and determining a package of drugs is over a certain weight so a heavier charge can be imposed. Police often share their suspicions regarding suspects with lab workers before forensic examinations are performed. This introduces prejudice to lab personnel in areas such as fingerprint examination and chemical testing for accelerants in arson investigations. Some lab examiners feel they are part of the prosecution
It is difficult to hold prosecutors accountable for acts of misconduct. Since prosecutors are often viewed as the “good guys” by the public, many times unethical, as well as illegal acts will be tolerated by the courts and criminal justice system as a whole. Prosecutorial misconduct is considered any action taken by the prosecutor in a criminal case that is against the law and/or unethical. Prosecutorial evidence can be anything from harassing witnesses on the stand, pressing unfounded charges against defendants, tampering with evidence, withholding evidence, up to taking bribes. Prosecutors can sometimes get away with misconduct as it is extremely difficult to prove that misconduct had actually taken place.
This is no longer a satisfactory explanation of crime, this is because William Sheldon didn’t think this was a valid theory and wanted to get more in depth and produce a valid theory. William Sheldon, an American psychologist, looked again at prisoners body shapes. He looked at 4,000 male students and compared them to 650 personality traits, including committing crime. From his studies he concluded that there were three different body types: Endomorph: The endomorph is physically quite ‘round’, and is typified as a ‘barrel of fun’ person. They tend to have wide hips and narrow shoulders which give them a pear looking shape; they also have quite a lot of fat spread across their body.
Crime Statistics “Crime statistics is an attempt to provide statistical measures of the crime in societies.” Unfortunately, because some crime is secretive, some unknown because they are never reported, therefore the results become very inaccurate. There are several ways on how these statistics are received, such as, hospital of insurance records, household surveys, and reports for several law enforcement agencies. Many countries gather their statistical crime information and it becomes of interest to international organizations such as, Interpol and the United Nations. Places like the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Home Office in England & Whales, are the agencies that publish these crime statistics and compile the statistics based on the different crimes that have been reported. Statistics are usually collected on based on three categories: Offenses, the breach of law; Offenders, those who commit the offenses; and the victims, the ones who are offended against.
DISCUSS THE PROBLEMS IN MEASURING AND DEFINING CRIME AND DEVIANCE. INTRODUCTION This paper will discuss the problems faced whilst trying to define and measure crime and deviance whilst also explaining the differences and relationship between crime and deviance. Criminologists have created means of measuring crime which this paper will explore and identify problems which will occur during the recording of crime and will explore influences on crime and crime statistics. DEFINING CRIME AND DEVIANCE Defining crime or deviance is diverse amongst the many different cultures, history and from one social context to another (new texts pg 138) which causes a big problem whilst defining and measuring crime or deviance as what is believed to be criminal or deviant behaviour in one society may be seen as legal or normal behaviour by another society. There are many theories relating to deviance and crime with each theory illustrating a different aspect of the procedure by which people break rules and are classed as deviants or criminals.
(Ferris, David, August 25, 2013) Hormones are not determined by the environment but instead biologically. Hormones can have a huge influence on emotions and this can impact criminal behavior. Hormonal imbalances can be a cause of aggression, which can turn into acts of violence or property damage. Crimes such as sexual abuse have also been linked to hormonal imbalances. Pedophiles are more commonly known for this type of behavior, according to a retired Detective, Pat Kehoe, who used to work for the New York Police Department in the Brooklyn sex crimes squad.
Many people have mistaken the jobs of detectives and forensic scientist to be those of similar means. Crime shows like “CSI: NY” and “LA forensics” portray the lives of forensic scientist as hectic, dramatic and full of action. It is the same shows that are also showing the lives as detectives in a similar fashion; often displaying the two occupations performing the same tasks. Although TV depicts their professions in a similar fashion, the job duties, work environment and education requirements for forensics and detectives are very dissimilar. First and foremost, the job duties of a forensic are far more complex than that of a detective’s.
Cesare Lombroso (CL) was a Psychiatrist that believed that criminals had common facial characteristics and that they were “born criminals” which he also referred to as “atavisms”. His theory was that genetic factors or abnormalities that are inherited influence individuals to commit crime and that it was the individuals destiny to become a criminal`. This can be identified through the shape of their skulls, large ears and lips, long arms and a flattened nose. He also believed that men were more likely to commit crime than woman as they were more narrow-minded of their interests. CL theory has been largely criticised as it is very much descriptive based rather than experimental.
1. Introduction Assessment is a complex & comprehensive process during which certain behavioural aspects, individual needs, and risks of the offender are identified, examined, verified, classified, analysed & evaluated. This assessment process is based on empirical literature, tested theories, relevant research findings & both personal judgment & experience related to the behaviour in question (Joubert, Hesselink & Marais 2003) Assessment cannot only be implemented for the planning of prevention & the intervention of treatment activities, but also for effective profiling as well as the prediction of criminal behaviour. 2. Definition of Key Concepts 2.1 Criminal Profiling ( Hard evidence profiling) According to Turvey 1999, the process of inferring distinctive personality characteristics of individuals responsible for committing criminal acts has been commonly referred to as ‘criminal profiling.’ These include biographic details of the perpetrator, crime-scene analysis, and so on.