These are designed to increase the level of AD and increase in national income. Lower taxation/higher government spending or lower interest rates will encourage more consumption. The diagram shows an increase in real GDP (economic growth) and a falling output gap. We would expect there to be a fall in unemployment. Therefore two objectives have been met.
In order to combat this deficit spending, taxes are increased to generate more revenue to pay off this spending. In response, consumers will spend less money and save more, thus causing a decrease in consumption and less money in the economy. Soon, there is a decrease in investment because products are not being sold. Prices drop, and the economy lowers into a recession.
Therefore, if MPC and consumer confidence is at a low, consumers will spend less and save more therefore resulting in a decrease in total consumption levels. This consequently will result in an increase in taxation, as there is a decrease in the circular flow of income, meaning governments have to increase taxes in compensation for the lack of spending. Due to this taxation increase the level of real disposable income, or RDI, amongst consumers will decrease and therefore decreasing consumer
Unique goods such as diamonds that have fewer substitutes tend to be inelastic. Income available to spend is another factor. All things equal if prices go up while income stays the same consumers will be forced to reduce their demand of the product. This represents an elastic reaction in demand. Another factor is time.
Economic costs of inflation- Inflations economic costs would include damage to competitiveness as high inflation could cause spiralling price multiplier effect; as prices go up workers would demand higher wages so increasing business costs and another round of price rises to maintain business profits- making exports for expensive, thus reducing the demand for them causing a decrease and AD domestically. Additionally this may lead to unemployment as more costs to the firm i.e. menu costs. Change in inflation could also cause uncertainty to consumers/businesses to spend and invest as they don’t know what the future holds, this can decrease confidence in the market and potentially, in the longer term, cause and reduction in AD. Economic costs of deflation- deflation has proved to have several economic costs, the main cost is that it encourages differed expenditure where people’s expectations change and they delay spending in the hope of getting a better deal.
The LM Curve will see a shift to the left and decrease the value of "Y" if the IR is higher than the ER of the market. The GDP is increasing in value and there will be an increase of savings.. If the IR was below the equilibrium, the opposite of the previously stated would occur. The LM Curve would see a shift to the right, therefore increasing the value of "Y". The GDP value would then decrease, due to the move from Point A to C, and increase employment which would decrease savings.
If there is spare capacity (negative output gap), then demand side policies can play a role in increasing economic growth. For example if we decrease interest rates, we will increase the demand in the economy as people have more money as their mortgage costs are decreased. It is the same idea with lowering taxes - this will boost demand, as people have more money to spend as less is taken away from them by the government. Aggregate demand is made up of consumption (consumer spending, Investments Government spending and Exports (minus) imports (Net exports). If anything affects these factors will result in affecting the demand.
When there is a recessionary gap, expansionary fiscal policy does not makes things better, but worse. Fiscal policy causes interest rates to increase and the Canadian Dollar to appreciate; as a result, there is a decrease of net exports and a decline in the economy. However, expansionary monetary policy causes interest rates to fall, which will provoke international outflows of financial capital. This, in turn, lowers the value of the dollar and makes Canadian goods more desirable. “The net export effect of expansionary monetary policy will be in the same direction as the monetary policy effect”.1 Recommended Course of Action Although both fiscal policy and monetary policy prove to have beneficial effects on an economy during a contractionary period, we believe that the government should use a combination of both policies…… - The money supply may be ineffective, but in the end people want to make sure that they will have money to save up in case of emergencies.
At last, achieve aggregate demand and aggregate supply to be an ideal balance. Monetary policy is divided into two types: expansionary and tightening. Aggressive monetary policy is to stimulate aggregate demand by increasing the speed of the money supply growth. In this policy, it is easier to obtain the credit, and the interest rates will reduce. Therefore, when the aggregate demand compared with the economic production capacity is quite low, expansionary monetary policy should be taken into use appropriately.
In theory, governments need not to intervene, as it is argued that freely floating exchange rates will automatically move to restore equilibrium on the current balance of the balance of payments. For example, if the current balance of the balance of payments in the UK was in a deficit, meaning that the value of imports exceeds the value of exports in that particular period, the demand for sterling pound will fall and the value of sterling demand for foreign currencies will rise. The external value of the pound would fall, making UK exports more price competitive and UK imports less competitive in the international market. Export sales therefore rise and import purchases fall, correcting the current balance deficit. The opposite occurs for a balance of payments surplus.