The next most important reason for the collapse was religion and Charles’ push toward Arminianism and absolutism. The fear of Charles becoming absolutist shaped how his policies were viewed and the MP’s political attitudes. Appello Ceasarum produced by Montagu and commissioned by the King angered many MPs as it argued the similarities between Protestantism and Catholicism. This brought MPs to call for the impeachment of Montagu as they felt it promoted anti-Calvinism. Charles’ reaction to this, as he imposed his prerogative as the Divine Right Monarch, promoted Montagu to Royal Chaplain.
Buckingham had too much influence with the King; this meant he was seen as one of the main causes to the break down in parliament. James wanted money from the Parliament in 1625 because of the war with Spain. Parliament decided to grant a tonnage and poundage as the monarch’s main source of Revenue. Opposition MPs discussed Parliament choosing the Kings ministers for him and also the impeachment of those who gained undue influence over him; this was especially aimed at Buckingham. A breakdown in parliament then occurred because Charles realized the parliamentary attack on Buckingham was increasing so in 1625 dissolved his first Parliament in order to protect his close companion.
How far was the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536 a threat to Henry VIII? The Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536 was the largest rebellion of the Tudor Period. Rebels rose across the North of England, rebelling against change to their traditional way of life and worship. By 10th October, Robert Aske, a Yorkshire lawyer had become chief captain of an army of thirty thousand. The rebels made their headquarters in York before moving down to Pontefract on 21st October where Lord Darcy handed over Pontefract Castle; the most important fortress in the North.
Henry VIII is often remembered as the English monarch who broke with the Roman Church. However, Henry was only attracted to Protestant doctrine in a limited way, as the years 1530-1547 demonstrate. Between the years 1530-1534, Henry tried to secure the Pope's permission to divorce Catherine of Aragon, by threatening first the English clergy and then the Pope's powers in England. When the Pope still did not grant the divorce, Henry undertook the most extreme of measures, claiming jurisdiction over the English Church for himself. The Act of Royal Supremacy of 1534 stated that the Crown was reclaiming powers that it had always possessed; powers that Rome had usurped during the previous four hundred years - a fact which Henry and his advisors firmly believed.
In 1625 Buckingham decided England needed a new ally in Europe in France after the failure of the Spanish match, they could see diplomatic advantages, France was becoming worried about the successes of the Hapsburg Spanish and might be persuaded to take part against them. This however made Puritan minded MPs suspicious of Charles as not only was Henrietta Maria, the King’s prospective wife, Catholic, but also the terms of marriage included toleration for Catholics – something Parliament would certainly not welcome, rather it resented the Crown’s decision to do this. The Alliance with France however, had broken down by 1627 leading England into war. Buckingham was to blame because it was his flawed policy of creating an alliance with the French under terms not possible to keep such as toleration for Catholics, which caused the French Chief Minister to decide not to join the English in a war against the Hapsburgs, because of which Buckingham reversed his policy of French alliance. Furthermore to gain popularity Buckingham decided to help the Huguenots who were held at the port of La Rochelle – again this was another flawed move as now England was at war with two countries.
The origins of rebellion arose when people in England opposed Mary’s catholic standing and were worrying over the possible return of papal authority over England, since mary’s coronation was in 1553 she quickly placed people of catholic standing in positions within the kingdom, including many positions in the privy council the most influential body within the government. This quick changeover within England is arguably what caused the Wyatt rebellion as it made the people feel anxious of the possible threat of going back to a papal authority, this can be reinforced by the following source ‘and yet thhe it be said in counsel as to my friend, we mind only the restitution of God’s word, but no words!’qhich was written by wyatts son showing us that Wyatt was rebelling to the threat Mary posed to religion, but it can also be inferred that although this was his motive he felt that this reason wasn’t acceptable to cause a greater enough rebellion to remove Mary from the throne so he says that they should use a different reason, as generally it can be argued that Mary’s catholic influence across England were relatively popular, possibly why the rebellion was shown little support. There
Causes of civil war: 1) Religious divisions 2) Relationship between monarch and parliament 3) Financial problems 4) Three kingdoms 5) Outbreak of 30 yrs war 6) Personality and religious beliefs of charles 7) Buckingham 8) Arminianism 9) Forced loans 10) Petition of right 11) Three resolutions 12) Dissolutin fo parliament and personal rule 13) Laudian reforms 14) Financial reforms and taxation without consent 15) Charles imposition of the prayer book in scotland 16) Fear of catholics in eng and 3 kingdoms 17) Scottish rebellion and bishops wars 18) Recall of parliament and energence of crisis Religious divisions Calvinist belief-predestination: the belief that some people were predestined to be saved because they were able to except the gift of salvation and the disciplined Christianity that went with it. Arminianism- challenged the calvinst view and argued that God offered salvation to all. Claimed that the Roman Catholic Church was not the work of the devil but a sister Church that had gone astray. Start of the Personal Rule and the Forced Loan Due to the rising amounts of complaints Charles had recieved against Buckingham, he realised that he would not recieve any sunsidies from parliament without sacrificing his friend. Therfore it can be argued that the forced loan and the ship money that Charles consequently enforced to provide for him financially were not the actions of a tyrannical leader but merely the actions of a monarch trying to maintain his throne.
Philip II was pushed was in to action by the execution of Mary Stuart in 1587. To defend Catholicism he sent the Armada across to England to capture the throne and depose Elizabeth. Although Elizabeth’s naval forces were not as extensive as that of Philip’s The 1588 Armada was successfully defeated. However, there were debates about whether this success was due to Elizabeth and her government. It is true that the English navy’s long range canons prevented the Spanish from exercising tier preferred method of attach, which was to mount the oppositions ships.
It was a period of intense rebellions such as the Wyatt’s rebellion, or factional fighting in court for example; Edward’s court was ridden with the visions of the dukes of Northumberland (John Dudley) and Somerset (Edward Seymour). But perhaps the most fundamental division of the mid Tudor crisis was thrown up by the reformation of the church and Mary’s brutal Counter Reformation. This leads me on to talk about one of the largest perceived problems at the start of Elizabeth’s reign. Henry VIII reigned against the background of the dramatic upheaval of the English church known as the Reformation. This is when the authority of the Roman Catholic Church led by the pope was rejected by those known as Protestants.
Charles's proFrench policies led to a Catholic scare. Catholic James II violated the Test Act by giving government and university jobs to Catholics. Fear of a Catholic monarchy led to the expulsion of James II and the Glorious Revolution. The triumph of England's Parliament: constitutional monarchy and cabinet government The "Glorious Revolution" expelled James II, installed William and Mary on the throne, and ended the divineright