American Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century As a growing nation, the United States felt the need to continue expansion for the benefit of all citizens. Territorial development allows for growth in population and natural resources to produce goods and supply services for prosperity. To acquire or control territories, forcible means would sometimes be used, otherwise known as imperialism. This paper will describe imperialism more intently. Advantages of imperialism will be discussed, as well as some of the disadvantages.
Turner believed that the idea of the frontier shaped the American being and their characteristics. He talks about how the frontier drove American history and that is why America is how it is today. Turner proves how expansion to the American West changed peoples' views on their culture. Due to the gain of new lands, this aided the problem of the closing frontier, and helped America become a rising world power. Teddy Roosevelt gave out a command to invade the Philippine islands if war had risen with Spain.
Many Americans believe that God give them the power and duty to expand territory, strengthen the United States. The motivation of United States launched this war is a debatable subject. The origin and influence The term Manifest Destiny was popular in the 19th century, some Americans believed they had the destiny to expand American continent Territory, from the Atlantic coast to Pacific Ocean. The ideal of territory expansion is already had before the American Independence, but in 1845, The United States Magazine and Democratic Review editor John O'Sullivan published an essay “Annexation”. “…our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions” This essay reveal John O'Sullivan claim United States had a destiny expansion .
Although the principle of Manifest Destiny was to strengthen the nation, it indirectly led to its breaking point by a symbol known as the Civil War. The ideas behind expansionism, land acquired after the Mexican War, and the rising conflicts surrounding slavery all contributed to the division of the nation. In 1845, an editor with a known voice and a democratic leader by the name of John L O' Sullivan gave birth to the term Manifest Destiny. He declared it was America's divine or "Principle-given" right to expand over the entire continent for the purposes of fulfilling America's "mission." This mission included not only gaining land but also pushing forward the freedoms of mankind.
Hakluyt also pointed that the overflow of people, both in need of religious freedom and in want of more business opportunities, within England needed a place to go. America is not only perfect for dumping those excess peoples into, but also exceeds that by also bringing profit from those living in those colonies. One of the major points that Hakluyt drives home is the comeuppance to Spain by creating demand for goods and shipping, and thereby creating profit for England and away from the plundering Spanish. From the profits of the taxes and duties of the new shipping industry, Hakluyt believes a powerful navy can be built for the protection and preservation of the growing British Empire. In 1584, when Hakluyt wrote his Discourse, he says that England at the time was swarming with unemployed youths, men, soldiers, prisoners, and beggars.
In reality, this was an extension of the United States’ imperialism in the late 19th and early 20th century. To substantiate this, the United States’ interests in Cuba, the invoking of the Platt Amendment and Cuba’s economic and political exploitation must be analysed. Nevertheless, one must first ask, “why would the United States have sought to establish an empire in the specified time period?” To answer this question, one must first examine the ideologies that surfaced during the 19th century in that country. In 1803, Thomas Jefferson asserted that Westward expansion “was the key to the nation’s health.” (History.com, 2009) Furthermore, John O’ Sullivan declared in 1845 that it was the United States’ “God-given right” (Browne & Carter, 2013) to “expand their civilizations and institutions across the breadth of North America” (Browne & Carter, 2013). The above resulted in the former Thirteen Colonies’ acquisition of the entire continent.
They wanted to extend their political, military and economic control all over the world. With the booming economy in the United States in the late 1800s, there was a problem with the surplus of goods. Excess production led to declining profits. Americans needed more consumers to buy their products. Industrialists wanted trade to expand into new overseas market where American products could be sold.
Mahan thought that the country with the most powerful navy would control the earth. He believed we should build a canal, and to protect the canal by controlling Hawaii and Cuba, which he thought was a necessity. During this time, thoughts of Anglo-Saxon superiority were a common "excuse" for imperialism. The political scientist and professor of Columbia University, John Burgess said the Anglo-Saxon races were "particularly endowed with the capacity for establishing national state, they are entrusted with the mission of conducting the political civilization of the modern world." Even before McKinley's presidency, he showed interest in foreign markets for the surplus of American products.
It was through this war that the US was able to finally emerge as a strong world power and obtain new strategic territories. The US acquired Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands that gave us foot holds on both sides of the country that resulted in new resources for the mainland. In the process of gaining new territories, in 1898 they also gained full control of Hawaii, which was a big resourceful gain for the US and having a strategic island territory in center of the Pacific left the US in great