The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Worlds Shaped by Words Miller describes two modes for the relationship between language and culture. What are they? SapirWhorf hypothesis a perspective in linguistic anthropology which says that language determines thought. Another way to understand relationships between language and culture comes from scholars in the area of sociolinguistics. It emphasizes how people's cultural and social context shape their languages and its meanings.
to show place and manner of articulation, as well as detailed charts that describe the manner of articulation and whether sounds are voiced, voiceless, aspirated or no aspiration. Based on all these distinctions they have developed symbols to represent a particular sound. Sounds or phones are represented with square brackets and are the basic units that are studied in phonetics. Phoneticians have used subtle differences to distinguish sounds and have created a comprehensive chart to show symbols for different sounds known as the IPA. Phonology on the other hand studies the abstract aspect of sounds.
The Comparison of the Gestalt of Culture in Primitive Societies “A culture, like an individual, is a more or less consistent pattern of thought and action” (Benedict 1989:46). In the book, Patterns of Culture by Ruth Benedict, the relationship of culture and personality are closely looked at in an attempt to differentiate between individual traits of a culture. Through Benedicts vigilant analysis of the gestalt of culture in the Zuni, Apache, Dobu and Kwakiutl cultures, she emphasizes cultural differences by evaluating them in relation to each other and their beliefs – ideas, standards, motives, emotions and values. Benedict (1989) states at the end of chapter 1, "The careful study of primitive societies is important today rather, as we have said, because they provide case material for the study of cultural forms and processes. They help us to differentiate between those responses that are specific to local cultural types and those that are general to mankind.
Running head: Multicultural Concepts 1 Multicultural Concepts Chelsie J. Bonner ENG 157 July 21, 2014 Michael Cromwell Multicultural Concepts It’s evident that there are many different cultures throughout the world. Each culture has its similarities and differences. For example, a similarity would be the United States class system and India’s caste system. While it is a similarity because it shows the different classes of people, it could also be a difference because they are significant to the two cultures in different ways. Each culture has a similar structural system such as political, military, religion, and social structures.
This second process is driven by an attention-shifting mechanism that directs attention toward group-attribute pairings that facilitate differentiation of the two groups and may lead to the formation of stronger minority stereotypes. Two experiments in this paper will examine on common account for category accentuation and distinctiveness-based illusory correlation. Factor That Contributes To the Formation of Stereotypes Tajfel’s experiments (Tajfel & Wilkes, 1963) on category accentuation and Hamilton’s demonstration of the distinctiveness based illusory correlation (Hamilton & Gifford, 1976) are the two seminal findings in the development of the social-cognitive approach to understanding stereotype formation. Whereas category accentuation effects highlight the exaggeration of real intergroup differences as the basis for stereotype formation, the illusory correlation shows that stereotypes may be formed in the absence of real group differences. Research on the two effects has largely proceeded independently, and they have been explained by different mechanisms.
In addition, these people also will show how ethnocentrism influences people’s behavior. The authors of Psychology also stated that ethnocentrism is conditions that decide between groups there will be conflict or harmony, prejudice or understanding. On the other words, ethnocentrism decides the bias to other culture group is positive or negative. (Carole Wade& Carol Tavris, Psychology, 2004) Ethnocentrism is caused by social identity. In Margaret Craven’s novel “I heard the owl call my name”, there are some examples showed the ethnocentrism between white people and Indian people.
Ebu: A Fascinating Case Study of Language and Culture Preservation Author: Elizabeth Odilile Ofili, MD, MPH. Atlanta Georgia This introductory essay is a brief synopsis of an attempt to document my fascination with the emergence of the “ Igala diaspora” The Igala people reside in current day Kogi State in Central Nigeria. The Igala diasporal include communities that trace their language and culture to Igala, however, they have migrated to the surrounding Southern Nigeria states, including Delta and Edo. I am most familiar with the Ebu community in the Oshimili North Local Government of Delta State, Nigeria. My family is from Ebu, and my Dad told us the story of how the Ebu people left Igala land around the 17th Century AD, and migrated South to the current location just west on the bank of the river Niger, in Delta State.
Understanding the contributions of any advancement in technology helps individuals to critically evaluate its effects as well as perceive its future in society (Christoph, Susanne and Maria 98). Sound perception is a particularly complex issue to handle as it requires an immense intake of information, in effort to make conclusions of how the sound was made, where it came from and ultimately its intentions. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of perceiving sounds during this era when we have experienced technological growth (Wolfflin 15). This paper seeks to disapprove that advancement in technology has contributed to improved perception to recognizing complex sounds. Misperception of sounds that can be referred to as phonological reanalysis helps determine the root sources that are associated with sound change in terms of articulatory variability and acoustic ambiguity.
Sentences have relationships the way people have relationships. A sentence might “father” another sentence by being its cause; or a sentence might be the “sister” of another sentence by restating it in other terms. To take this idea further, a paragraph might be thought of as a family of sentences that all relate to each other and are held together by some common bond, or main idea. When assessing sentence relationship, ask these questions: “What connects these two sentences?” “Are these sentences similar?” “Is that similarity factual, or does it contain opinion?” “Are these sentences different?” “What makes them different? Is it the presence of details?
Ogheneruona James Dibie Rachel Pyles ENG 101 6TH February, 2012 Language as a Means of Identity In James Baldwin’s essay: “If Black English Isn’t a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is?” He makes the argument that language is a means of Identity. In the first place, what is identity really? Identity is simply a way of showcasing where a person or group of people originated from. That is, by their dressings, religion or even language etc. It creates an image of what a person’s ancestors or descendants were like which in turn shows others what he or she would be like.