However, the argument that carries the greatest weight is that the individuals who led these revolts and were at the forefront of the revolutionary movements were not united themselves in how they wanted Italy to unite. Austria clearly had a central role in putting down many of the revolts and so played an important role in both the failure of the 1820-21 revolutions and the ones that took place between 1848-49. Prior to 1820, Italy was unsettled and highly divided with nationalists, liberals and extremists amongst the masses. As the hostility in Italy increased under Austrian rule, secret societies emerged such as ‘The Carbonari’ – which was particularly popular in Southern Italy. By 1815, the aims of these secret societies changed in the direction of driving out the Austrians and restoring old Monarchs.
Growth of support for facism was a reason for Mussolinis appointment as Prime Minister,however there were many other reasons for Mussolinis appointment as PM, but growth of support was very important for him. The war and the mutilated victory, had an affect on Mussolinis appointment as PM. The main reason wad that the nationalists were bitterly disappointed that italy didn’t make any gains during the war. The nationalists claimed that Italy had been betrayed by the Liberal government, this shows that the nationalists might have wanted to overthrow the Liberal government and therefore supported Mussolini before he was appointed. This links into the title point that Mussolini had a wide support base and that it was growing.
To what extent were the dictators Hitler and Mussolini responsible for the outbreak of WW2 in Europe Dictators Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini are largely responsible for the outbreak of WW2. This is due to the aggressive and dangerous foreign policies. It aggravated tensions between European powers and the Western Allies. Even though these two dictators played a major role in the outbreak of war, the little resistance from the Allies gave the dictators breathing room to enforce such heavy foreign policies and ultimately create fear and tensions between nations. Other influences include the League of Nations which failed the principle of collective security and the enforcements of demilitarisation.
Germany was not happy about losing all this land as it made them smaller, it damaged the economy and they lost colonies to make them look stronger and to help them if another war broke out. Another reason Germany was unhappy was because they were force to take war guilt. Germany had to take all of the blame for the war. This made Germany angry as they did not actually start the war and there were other people involved. Germany also had to pay reparation.
Many historians have traced the causes of World War II to problems left unsolved by World War I (1914-1918). World War I and the treaties that ended it also created new political and economic problems. Forceful leaders in several countries took advantage of these problems to seize power. Many aspects led to the eventual rise of WW2, beginning with the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. The war ending treaties were worked out in haste by countries with opposing goals and failed to satisfy even the victors.
Fascist ideology can be seen as a key feature to the outbreak of world war two at the end of the 1930s however fascist foreign policy was developed within Germany and Italy for other reasons. Germany and Italy were both defeated during world war one and were not invited into the league of nations also both countries suffered from the treaty of Versailles and wanted revenge and to re look the points of the treaty. Germany felt humiliated by the terms of the treaty her once great and powerful military was now minimum and she could not defend her borders if invaded. Italy felt betrayed by the allied forces who had promised her lands in the Adriatic for her support within the war. When Hitler came to power within Germany in the 1930s he aimed to bring all German speaking people under one great empire and that Germans were the master race who were superior to Jews and Slavs this showed the aggressive nature of Germans foreign policy because for Hitler to bring all German speaking people into one great empire it would mean having to invade territory she had lost from ww1.
What Evans means by this is that the desperation of the people led them to polarising their votes and seeing radical leaders like Hitler as a solution to the mess that Germany had become. Hitler took advantage of this, and from there was able to play a huge role in the collapse of the Weimar Republic. The economic strain that Germany was placed under was also a major impact of the Depression on the collapse of the Republic. Firstly, the Depression had the obvious impact of the debt rising and the banking crises however, there were a number other impacts. Germany relied heavily on international trade for resources; almost one third of their resources came from overseas.
Although the conditions of the agreement seemed extremely severe, the allied countries had no sympathy for the Germans. They were forced to pay excessive amounts of money as reparation fees to make up for all the damage and destruction that was caused during the war. 13% of German territory was given away and many important industrial areas were controlled by western allies. This caused a major impact on the economy and had many affects to not only the government, but German citizens as well. Many people became unemployed and were no longer able to support their families.
How far do you agree that the consolidation of fascist power in Italy in the years 1922-1929 was mainly due to the use of force and intimidation? Mussolini consolidation of fascist power in Italy in the years 1922-1929 could have been mainly due to the use of force and intimidation. However this was not a straightforward process, since fascism was a new thing. In the years 1922 to January 1925 marked the transition from the liberal parliamentary system to the fascist state. Like many political transitions, it was an untidy and complicated process.
The second world war was different as it had ideological (Nazism v Communism) as well as racial (Aryan v Slav) elements, but even many other countries were involved, the 'central' theme of both World Wars is Russo-German conflict. It seems strange to say it, but the result of the WWI was unsatisfactory for both Russia (revolution, political withdrawal from the conflict) and Germany (defeat, internal political turmoil that stopped short of revolution) and so it's almost like they ended up having a rematch. * The failure of the League of Nations as an organisation, principally over aggressive Italian imperialism in Ethiopia in the mid 1930s but also during the Spanish Civil War later in the decade. Because the League of Nations failed to act in those cases, Italy and Germany thought they could do what they liked: that lesson wasn't lost on Russia and Japan either. * Along the same lines as the failure of the League of Nations, the short term failure of the appeasement policy of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in the late 1930s was a contributory factor, especially after Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia in 1938/39.