Selective optimization with compensation theory states that successful aging depends on three main factors: selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC). The theory describes how people can produce new resources and allocate them effectively to the tasks they want to master. Selection is based on the concept that older adults have a reduced capacity and loss of functioning, which require a reduction in performance in most life domains. Optimization suggests that it is possible to maintain performance in some areas through continued practice and the use of new technologies.
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory - developed by Stanford psychologist, Laura Carstensen - is a life-span theory of motivation. The theory maintains that as time horizons shrink, as they typically do with age, people become increasingly selective, investing greater resources in emotionally meaningful goals and activities. According to the theory, motivational shifts also influence cognitive processing. Aging is associated with a relative preference for positive over negative information in attention and memory (called the "positivity effect"). Because they place a high value on emotional satisfaction, older adults often spend more time with familiar individuals with whom they have had rewarding relationships.
Instead you need to consistently challenge your brain so it will age healthfully” (Corrigan, 2003, para. 5). Having a basic understanding of the left and right brain or hemisphere will assist us in our quest for a happier lifestyle with a sharper, healthier brain. We all know that we think and learn in different ways. A. Hilliard defines learning style as, “the sum of the patterns of how individuals develop habitual ways of responding to experience and distinguishes learning styles by considering the holistic vs. the analytic learner ("Learning Styles, Culture & Hemispheric Dominance," 1997, para.
Chronological Age is based on a person’s date of birth. (GCIT, 2012a) For example two people may have he same chronological age but a different functional because one might be healthier and physically fitter. In relation to the older client it means that they may not be able to function in the same way based on their chronological age. (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) 2. Define the “age stratification theory”, and discuss the relevance of this theory to the older person.
However, the investigations about this topic reveal the real effects that bilingualism produces at a brain organization level and to cognitive networks. On the one hand, it is clearly seen the bilingual children’s results on cognitive tasks outperforming their monolingual peers. On the other hand, there are the favorable results regarding people at an old age enduring the symptoms of diseases such as dementia or Alzheimer, in where they show a delay of this devastating symptoms and also a higher level of cognitive functioning even when they present a more advanced state of disease. Consequently, and as the investigations can establish, bilingualism is a brain activity that requires certain types of abilities as attention or memory providing to the bilingual speaker a cognitive advantage that brings many benefits to the speaker. Key Concepts: Benefits of bilingualism, Cognitive aspects, Language adquisition Cognitive Benefits of Bilingualism: Since Childhood to Old age Introduction Language is the basis for all human experience; it is part of every human being development and it is considered the expression of thought and what allows us
Brain plasticity (neural plasticity) is a term that describes how the brain is affected by its outside environment and its ability to change based on experience. Changes in the brain can be positive, such as when you learn something new, or negative, such as when damage occurs to the brain through an injury. Brain plasticity can vary and be affected by age, but scientific studies have shown that neural plasticity actually takes place over an entire life span and not just in infancy like previously believed. The brain is always creating new neural pathways and altering old ones so that that it can function the most efficiently. The brain is also able to move things structurally for accommodation as a result of learning, resulting in a larger weight of the brain, and it can also move functions from a damaged portion of the brain to an undamaged portion of the brain to compensate for the injury, which may also result in a smaller weight of the brain.
Trauma can affect development and have long term consequences such as depression, Post Traumatic Stress, issues with attention and potentially affect proper development of the cortex of the brain. Many traumatic events could impair the ability to develop appropriately. As stated in Development Across the Life Span, Chapter 9-2: “Adequate nutrition is important because of its contributions to growth, health, social and emotional functioning, and cognitive performance.” (Feldman, 2014). This is just the beginning, it is recognized in early development, as stated, that initial nutrition aids in healthy neural development, however, it is also influenced by other issues like divorces, bullying, and race issues as different races become particually aware of issues of prejudice or potential segregation. (Feldman, 2014).
COURSE NAME: Neuro-musculoskeletal Proprioceptive impairment has a significant impact on rehabilitation outcome – discuss The term ‘rehabilitate’ means to make someone ‘able’ (Allen, 2002). The outcome of rehabilitation is to help a person achieve the highest level of function, independence and quality of life (Edwards, 2002). However, the process of rehabilitation is much individualised and its structure will often depend on the source of the pathology and the presence of co-morbidities; this will also affect the extent and duration needed for patients to achieve their highest level of functioning. One example of a deficit that is considered to hinder the prognosis of rehabilitation, subsequently impacting on rehabilitation outcome, is the presence of a proprioceptive impairment. Proprioception was first introduced by the English physiologist, Charles Sherrington (Cohen, 1999).
However the hypothesis that the method of loci improves memory recall was supported. It was concluded that loci enhances memory recall but further studies should closely examine the limitations caused by the participants. Keywords: method of loci, memory recall The effect of the types of loci on memory recall The method of loci was first developed in the time of ancient Romans and Greeks (Roediger, 1980). It is one of the oldest mnemonic devices that introduced learning techniques that aided information retention (Moe & De Beni, 2005). The method of loci is a method of memory enhancement which uses visualisation of specific path at a familiar location, to organise and recall large amounts of information (Legge, Madan, Ng & Caplan, 2012).
These resolutions can be anything from quitting smoking to losing weight. It is believed by some that if one follows through with their resolutions that they will become a better person. The next theory that we will examine is the biological and evolutionary theories. These theories are that “important components of personality are inherited. (Feldman, 2009, p.399) This means that this theory is determined by our