Closed Russia after French Revolution – hmmm…why? 1. Censored intellectuals – here’s a pattern/precedent f. Russian expansion i. Fought Ottoman Empire ii. Extended holdings all the way down to modern day Alaska, Oregon, N. California g. Russia’s interests in Europe i.
Alexander Nevsky began the process of making the princes more powerful, and it was finished by Ivan III, who overthrew the Mongols and became Russia's first tzar Tsar: Russian title for monarch to refer Russian Ruler, Ivan III (r. 1462-1505) Teutonic Knights: Order of German Knights founded in Jerusalem who shifted their area of operation in 1211 to eastern Europe to convert non-Christians Places The Ukraine: a country in Eastern Europe Empires / Kingdoms Il-khan Empire: a “secondary” or “peripheral” khan based in Persia. The il-khans’ khanate was founded by Hulegu, a grandson of Genghis Khan, and was based at Tabriz in modern Azerbaijan. It
To heighten the urgency of his demands for modernization, Stalin portrayed the Western powers as warmongers eager to attack them. Pravda-a | 1. pravada – a Russian newspaper Alexandra Kollontai-A leading feminist in revolutionary Russia. Osip Mandelstam-Russian poet who died in a prison camp Anna akhmatova-was the pen name of the modernist poet Anna Mikhail Sholokhov-was of peasant birth, fought in the Civil
Gage E. Yoder Dr. Ndiang’ui 09/21/13 Period 8 A Comparison of Religious beliefs of the Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism & Calvinism How England became protestant- in 1507 Henry VIII became king of England. Henry VIII was married to Catharine of Aragon; they had a daughter named Mary Tudor. Catharine could not have any more children, and Catharine was actually aunt to Charles V. Henry VIII was a very devout catholic, pope Leo X had given Henry VIII an award called “Defender of the Faith”. In 1521 when Charles V issued the Edict of Worms to Martin Luther, Henry VIII wrote a stinging letter denouncing Luther. Henry VIII always wanted to have a male heir.
Imperial Russia Peter the Great, the first Emperor of Russia Under Peter the Great, Russia was proclaimed an Empire in 1721 and became recognized as a world power. Ruling from 1682 to 1725, Peter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War, forcing it to cede West Karelia and Ingria (two regions lost by Russia in the Time of Troubles), as well as Estland and Livland, securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade.  On the Baltic Sea Peter founded a new capital called Saint Petersburg, later known as Russia's Window to Europe. Peter the Great's reforms brought considerable Western European cultural influences to Russia. The reign of Peter I's daughter Elizabeth in 1741–62 saw Russia's participation in the Seven Years' War (1756–63).
Ivan the “Not So” Terrible Ivan IV, know as Ivan the Terrible, is most known for his brutal ruling and centralizing Russia. He was born in Moscow on August 25, 1530, the oldest son of Vasilij III. Ivan’s father, Vasilij Glinsky, died when he was only three and his mother took the throne. His mother, Yelena Glinskaya was leading the territory that noble family owned, but it soon capsized into intrigue, and violence as rival nobles fought over who would rule Glinsky Family. Yelena died in 1538 and misrule continued.
Galba was the first of the generals that were fighting for the throne to reach Rome and had himself proclaimed emperor. He was an old man of 75 when he became emperor.He was famous for the mistake that he refused top pay the soldiers the bonus that emperors usually paid them. Otho, a friend Galba had dissapointed, turned his soldiers against Galba and on January 16 69 AD Galba was killed and he only reigned for barely 7 months.The next emperor Marcus Salvius Otho, as soon as he became emperor Otho faced a revolt of his own as the praetorian guard supported him but the Legions in Germany supported a man named Vitellius. As a result ,the German legions marched on Rome to put Vitellius on the throne and to depose Otho.when he heard of this revolt, Otho sent his troops to fight Vitellius. Otho had sent his troops to late and his army suffered a horrible defeat.
Through examining the collapse of Rome through Watson’s ‘Spectrum and Pendulum’ and analysing the legacies of the Roman Empire, this essay looked at how the European system was influenced by the legacy of the Roman Empire. From the fall of the Roman Empire in 476AD through to Charlemagne’s Holy Roman Empire in the 9th century, western Europe went through a period of great difficulty. The population of western Europe managed to preserve some of its Roman civilisation, firstly through the founding of the Holy Roman Empire by Charlemagne, ‘restoring’ the original Roman Empire. Secondly, Italy, Spain and France retained varieties of the Latin language, which became the Romance languages of today. Lastly, the population remained or became Catholic, and were organised and represented by the Catholic Church.
The Germans, who continued making territorial gains (marked 2), eventually began aiding the pro-Tsarist White Russian forces, attempting to stem the very revolt they had helped to foster. However the damage to the Russian infrastructure was too great, and the "White" Russians were eventually forced from power by the "Red" Communists. The treaty of Brest-Litovsk was finally concluded with the new Bolshevik government on March 3, 1918, stripping their country of all provinces west of the Ukraine. That treaty was annulled by the Armistice of November 11, and the new government in Moscow eventually re-established its presence in all of the previously held lands. Ironically, one of the lasting actions by the Bolsheviks was the attempted indoctrination of German prisoners-of-war.
Absolutism in Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe I. During the 17thc Prussia, Austria, and Russia appeared as growing powers in Eastern Europe The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia I. The evolution of Brandenburg into a powerful state was largely the work of Hohenzollern dynasty, which in 1415 had come to rule the principality in northeastern Germany. A. In 1609, the H inherited some lands in the Rhine valley in western Germany, 9 years later they received the duchy of Prussia.