It it over-simplistic to state that opposition was successful or unsuccessful in Russia from 1855 and 1964. The effectiveness of opposition in Russia had to be evaluated according to the regime in power. For example, the opposition to Tsarism under Alexander II was unsuccessful as his assassination led to reactionary Tsarist rule for thirty six more years. However, the opposition under Nicholas II’s rule was highly successful, helping to lead to a communist government. All Russian governments in this period faced strong opposition to their regime with the period as a whole punctuated by riots, disturbances and revolutions.
Loyalty Security Program’s views towards Communists McCarthyism was a political movement that made accusations against Communists, named after Senator Joseph McCarthy. This era was during post-World War ll from the late 1940’s through the 1950’s. McCarthyism focused on the Communist party which was a threat to the American government. Many other Americans’ were worried about Stalin and the Communist party in Russia. The executive branch of federal government created a Loyalty Security Program which President Harry S. Truman had written as the Executive Order 9835.
How far can the reign of Khrushchev be seen as a success? After the death of Stalin, Khrushchev was the leader of the Ussr from september 1953 - october 14th 1964. The reign of khrushchev could be seen as an overall failure due to his failed reforms which cost him the support of the army, farmers/ workers. He was concerned with major events such as the cuban missile crisis, signing the warsaw pact, the soviet space program, the U-2 and berlin crisis and he also played an important part in de- Stalinisation. Under Khrushchev’s leadership russia experienced both political and agricultural reform in the form of abolishing the special tribunals, forced hospitalisation & planting the virgin lands of Kazakhstan and western Siberia.
With this he was arrested, exiled finally escaped to London in 1902 under the pseudonym of Trotsky, he met with Lenin and began working at Iskra. 1903 saw the split of the party where Trotsky sided against Lenin and joined the Mensheviks, because he believed Lenin’s ideals would lead to a dictatorship. The events of the 1905 revolution and Bloody Sunday were significant in Trotsky's career. He secretly returned to Russia where he used his political and organisational skills as well as being elected chairman on the St Petersburg Soviet. In December 1905 he was again arrested after showing his public support of the Bolsheviks during his imprisonment Trotsky developed the idea of Permanent revolution – he argued that a revolution could not survive in one country for long it would need an ally.
In order to do this Stalin instituted a party purge to silence the opposition of Riutin and his supporters, the assassination of Kirov, executed delegated party congresses, The trial of the twenty-one and general Purges. Between the years 1929-34 Stalin faced opposition from within the communist party A purge was the systematic elimination of opponents by Stalin, The assassination of Kirov allowed Stalin to use it as an excuse to begin the purges. In 1932, Kirov had helped to defeat Stalin on an important issue concerning Mikhail Riutin, who had circulated a document that was highly critical of Stalin. Stalin was furious and demanded Ruitins execution. However the central committee and the politburo refused to order Ruitin’s execution, Stalin viewed this as a betrayal.
Russia opposed the others’ capitalism. The installment of the Soviet puppet government, Lublin Poles, brought about tension among the big three. The Truman administration’s anti-Soviet attitude deepened the tension, and Truman unofficially told Stalin about the atomic bomb in Potsdam Conference. Also, George Kennan, the US Ambassador in Moscow in 1946, warned his mother nation of USSR’s
In an article written in Time Magazine, the writers reported that Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, who was hosting a reception for Polish Communist Leader Wladyslaw Gomulka, that Khrushchev told the capitalist states “We Will Bury You.” The day before, during his speech at the United Nations that turned into a tirade, leaders of the twelve NATO nations walked out on Khrushchev when he called Britain, England as well as Israel “bandits”. This act has happened with other leaders, such as Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Muammar Gaddafi when they have started going on tirades during meeting of the United Nations. However, in an article published by the New York Times a few weeks later, it was implied that during the translation from Russian to English, the translators of Time Magazine had made a mistake. Khrushchev had really said “Whether you like it or not, history is on our side. We will dig you in."
Khrushchev’s post Stalin policies began to irritate Mao; disagreeing when Khrushchev denounced Stalin in his speech to the twentieth congress 1956 and when he restored relations with Tito the Yugoslavia leader who also denounced Stalin. These occurrences shocked Mao, who had supported Stalin ideologically and politically, because Khrushchev was dismantling Mao's support of the USSR with public rejections of most of Stalin's leadership and actions, such as announcing the end of the Cominform, and, de-emphasising the core Marxist–Leninist thesis of inevitable war between capitalism and socialism. Resultantly, contradicting Stalin, Khrushchev was advocating the idea of "Peaceful Coexistence", between communist and capitalist nations—which directly challenged Mao's "lean-to-one-side" foreign policy, adopted after the Chinese Civil War. Therefore Mao accused Khrushchev of pursing a more revisionist approach and turning away from the traditional communism in order to maintain unity at home and leading Mao to focus more on national interest as he would increase independent actions of China from Moscow due to the ideological split with the USSR. Mao attempted to challenge
Andrew Wodarcyk Freshman English Mr. J. Pharion 11 February 2008 Communism During the Russian Revolution Communism was founded on the ideas of Karl Marx and failed because of flaws in the system, mainly in the leadership. To understand why communism failed, one must have researched the principles of Marxism; because of the way that Communism was based upon Marxism. To compare and contrast Communism and Marxism, it would be necessary to research the principles of Communism also. Since there were three leaders during the time of Soviet Communism, understanding the principles of each would be necessary. The first was Vladimir Lenin, whose style of government was referred to as Leninism.
To what extent did Gorbachev contribute to the break-up of the USSR and the Warsaw Pact? Under the control of Stalin, communist states in Eastern Europe were forced to join the Warsaw Pact in 1955, which was a military alliance against the US NATO. Besides, earlier in 1947, he also launched the Molotov Plan which was an economic assistance to the Soviet satellites, had brought a great economic burden on itself. Luckily, there’s an upturn of Soviet after 1984. Gorbachev, who was the new General Secretary in 1985, was to a large extent contributed to the break-up of the USSR and the Warsaw Pact.