Explain why in the years 1906 to 1911, Stolypin attempted to reform agriculture. (12 marks) Stolypin attempted to reform agriculture for many reasons, one of the most important being to strengthen tsarist autocracy. He strongly believed that the future of Russia depended on building a prosperous peasantry. There was widespread rural poverty but an upper class of peasant that farmed efficiently and were wealthier, they were known as the Kulaks. Stolypin believed that the encouragement of a class such as the Kulaks would make them hostile to further change therefore more conservative and loyal to the Tsar as the Tsar had made them wealthy.
Prior to the “five year plans”, Russia had mostly a peasant farming economy. The 1750 to 1914 period in Russia was met by a large increase in the available labor force. Coupled with an increase in population, Russia's emancipation of the serfs freed many of Russia's serfdom from perpetual slavery. However, the emancipation process was planned so as to put the freed serfs deeply in debt to the original owners of the land. In fact, many of the serfs were so deeply indebted that they relocated to Russia's cities in search of better work opportunities.
Durkheim sees anomie as responsible for the world’s disorder of economics- the lack of morality and regulation resulted in overpowering the weak; thus, he feels that only norms can prevent the abuse of power and calls for regulation and equal opportunity from birth- the greater the equal opportunity the less need for restraint. Marx looked at how capitalism separated humanity by making work a simple means of individual existence. In addition he describes society in terms of class and economic conflicts. Marx saw proletariat or people of a working class as being underneath the bourgeoisie or the capitalist of a modern society. Marx looked at how alienation of production of commodities by workers also leads to alienation of social life.
These views where portrayed by many liberal philosophers such as Adam Smith, in regards to economic management; he believed that free trade and free markets where fundamental to successful economic growth, as individuals, consumers and business would create competition and feel confident within the economy. However more modern liberals believe in a form of positive liberty (More state intervention for progression by providing individuals with the tools to create a basic standard of living to develop their social and economic lives, with systems such as welfare) TH Green believed there was a need to embrace positive liberty as he stated that individual liberty was only achievable under favourable social and economic circumstances (Creating the welfare system). However today’s contemporary liberal democrats have a combined belief of both positive and negative liberty. There is potential to suggest that there is a contradiction within the lib dems with regards to their position on the state. Liberal philosophy clearly remains at the heart of the liberal democrat party.
Why and How the Progressive Movement Emerged The Progressive movement was one which called for the greater regulation of businesses and the safeguarding of safety and rights for workers. Much of the reform called for was a direct response to the conditions and injustices created by the rapid, unregulated growth of the Gilded Age. Early progressives rejected the Social Darwinism philosophy. In other words, they were people who believed that the problems society faced could best be addressed by providing good education, a safe environment, and an efficient workplace. Much of the Progressive movement occurred coincidentally due to Immigration, Industrialization, and Urbanization.
Roosevelt had a great impact on America by changing the relationship between the national government and the people changed drastically. The government took on a greater role in the everyday social and economic lives of the people. Theodore Roosevelt had a great effect on the great depression because he happened to be the right guy at a very bad time. Roosevelt had a plan called the New Deal to help America back on its feet. The New Deal programs of FDR created a liberal political alliance made up of labor unions, blacks and other ethnic and religious minorities, intellectuals, the poor, and some farmers.
The economy would be ruled by natural laws of “survival of the fittest” and “supply and demand.” These ideas favored captains of industries like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller. They had their own monopolies and used dictatorial/tyrannical ways to exploit the workers. In the Progressive Era, the idea of industrial freedom and democracy came in. Workers were thought to not only deserve better wages and working conditions, they also should make some economic decisions and have rights to
During the eighteenths and nineteenth century, there was a changing in society in Europe and America, called the Industrial Revolution. Back then, both areas were rural with dependence on the use of agricultural to earn an income and feed themselves. When making tools or anything that required manufacturing, it was done in the homes of people with hand tools and basic machines. The Industrial Revolution was very important because during this time the invention of the steam engine boosted transportation and factory machines. Also the iron and textile industries benefited greatly with the revolution.
This was built on the idea of human dignity or respect for people which slowly unfolded with the liberal revolutions in Britain. Individuals respect someone for being a human being, regardless of their achievements or characteristics. They are equal and therefore should be treated with consideration and be given the same opportunities. Is this really the case? Social stratification is a hierarchy of positions with regard to economic production which influences the social rewards to those in those positions.
The Inevitability of Negative Consequences of the Industrial Revolution The perception of the industrial revolution as a key factor in changing the way of life is a fair statement. It is termed a “revolution” because the changes it produced were great and sudden. This revolution first appeared in Britain in the 1700s, fostering attitudes toward capitalism and modern industry everywhere. New traditions replaced old traditions, machinery replaced people, and people moved to urban cities from rural areas; simply, the way of life had been changed forever. The industrial revolution introduced mass production and greater markets.