Several nursing theories focus on quality of life in or as part of their nursing theories – Roger’s, King, Peplau, Leininger, and Parse (Plummer & Molzahn, 2009). Margaret Newman, Rosemarie Parse, and Jean Watson’s theories all deal with the concept of transcendence. Rogers’, Newman, Watson, and Parse’s theories share common themes and perspectives related to their philosophical views in the development of their theories (Sarter, 1988). Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and Boykin & Schoenhofer’s Theory of Nursing as Caring both view nursing as a discipline and a profession. Both theories view caring as an experience lived moment to moment.
Further on, the plan to implement the theory in critical care nursing was presented. This paper concluded with the discussion about the theory of comfort as an integral factor of excellent nursing practice today. Comfort Theory Applied in Critical Care Nursing “Comfort has been considered a positive, multidimensional, subjective, dynamic experience…and results from the interactions established by the subject with himself, to those surrounding him and to the situations faced in the process of disease and health care” (Freitas, et al, 2012). The purpose of this paper is to share my understanding of the concept of Comfort Theory designed by Dr. Katharine Kolcaba, with its implication and application to critical care nursing. The Comfort Theory was chosen to be analyzed, with goals of seeking relevant information and guidelines on how to successfully implement the theory to improve the comfort level among critically ill patients while performing daily routine care in ICU.
As Tanner (2006) identified, there is a strong need for nurse educators to focus on clinical thinking in order to safely meet complex patient care situations in health care. This is consistent with observational learning and role modeling theory (Bandura, 1997), the opportunity for students to view an expert nurse role modeling care significantly improved aspects of clinical judgment (Johnson et. al 2012). The second article
Watson also characterizes nursing as a healing art and science dedicate to the pursuit of harmonious and sacred relationships (George, 2011). Her theory of human caring was first published in 1979 from the vision of theorist Florence Nightingale. “Watson stated that the original intent of her work was to serve as worldwide or ethic by which nursing could explore and understand its tradition and purpose in caring and healing” (George, 2011, p. 455). As a contributing theorist of the developmental model, her human caring theory approach came from Carl Roger’s phenomenological psychology and physiology. She was also influence by several philosophers such as Whitehead, Kirkegaard, and deChardin from a philosophical aspect.
Jean Watson and the Theory of Caring University of Phoenix NUR/403 Jacqueline DePaulis, MS, RN, FNP February 7, 2011 Jean Watson and the Theory of Caring Jean Watson’s theoretical approach to nursing care incorporates spiritual, humanist, and holistic aspects. The Eastern philosophical influence to her work speaks to the ideals of human morality, connectedness of all humans and to altruistic nursing care. This paper will discuss the background and concepts of Watson’s theory, as well as a nurse/patient transpersonal interaction. In the context of this interaction, the theory’s major assumptions and carative factors/caritas will be explored, as well as, a personal reflection on this transpersonal moment. The Background of Watson’s Theory Jean Watson began her career as a diploma nurse, then, graduated with her baccalaureate in nursing science in the early nineteen-sixties; she advanced, to receive her masters in psychiatric nursing within two years.
The theorist’s background and perspectives will be explained and lastly the theory will be discussed as to how it can serve as an underpinning and improve nursing practice. Concepts for the Grand Theory When comparing a grand theory to a middle range theory, a grand theory is much more abstract that uses a wide scope to explain and define broad issues. A middle range theory is more specific, focused and concrete (Eldridge, 2014). Watsons’s theory of human caring is a good example of a grand theory. Watson’s theory takes on a holistic approach to providing care for the patients all around wellbeing.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) provides the research and information of how to deliver the best patient care, and can be integrated into the delivery of nursing care. Prevention of ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) in ventilated patients in the intensive care unit is just one example of how evidence-based practice is being implemented in nursing care. Evidence-Based Practice Dr. David Sackett, a pioneer of evidence-based practice, best describes it as “the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of the individual patient” (Troseth, 2009). This involves the integration of clinical experience, the values of the individual patient, and the best evidence-based research (Schardt, 2010). Implementing EBP in nursing care establishes who they are, what they do, and what effect they have on patient outcomes (Overholt, 2004).
The law is trying to repair the resource allocation of health care, while compensating quality of care over quantity of care. To accomplish this, they are creating incentives for combined models of care delivery and distributing funds for proficient and quality care (Haas, 2011). Accordingly, because nurses take on an elaborate role of patient care and outcomes, they must adapt to the restructured health care system (Haas, 2011). The rationale for this speech is to describe the anticipated shift in nursing practice and to examine the models of continuum of care, accountable care organizations (ACO), medical homes, and nurse-managed health care clinics. In addition to recognizing them as important contributors of primary care services, the PPACA acknowledges the prospective leadership responsibility for the advance practice registered nurse (APRN) in the innovative care system (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013).
Watson’s Theory Robin Edmond NUR/403 December 12, 2012 Liz Gonzales RN, PHN, MSN/ED Watson’s Theory The author will discuss Watson’s theory, the historic background, description of concepts of nursing, patent environment, describe a nurse-patient relationship, which includes a caring relationship, caring moment, and use of carative factors of, cultivation of sensitivity to oneself and others, formation of humanistic-altruistic system of values, development of a helping-trusting human caring relationship, and instillation of faith-hope. The author will reflect on lessons learned, how the caring was received by the patient and what may have been done differently to enhance the transpersonal relationship. Watson’s Background Jean Watson was born in southern West Virginia in 1940. She attended the Lewis Gale School of Nursing in Roanoke, Virginia, which she graduated from in 1961. Watson graduated her bachelor’s of Science in Nursing at the University of Colorado in 1964.
According to Alligood (2010), “the formation of a humanistic-altruistic system of values, the instillation of faith-hope, the cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others, and the development of a helping-trusting relationship” (p. 113) are the four carative factors. Watson’s theory teaches the nurse how to search within herself to ask the question what is the true caring? Watson’s theory focuses on genuine nursing care that consists of respect and valuing another