Water shortage in Australia
Today I will talk about the problem of water shortages in Australia. This problem has become a significant issue all over the world. Water is a resource that is under current and increasing stress. A recent studies found that around one-third of the world’s people live in areas suffer from water scarcity that is mean available water resources are not sufficient to meet all demands. At the beginning we will explain the causes and effect of water scarcity. Then we will suggest a number of solutions and evaluate them.
There are many reasons for water scarcity
* Population growth.
* Increased food demand.
* Climate change.
* Increased water withdrawals for industry and manufacturing.
* Loss of water quality through pollution.
* Increasing use of hydropower and irrigation in developing countries.
There are many effects of water shortage:
* Drought affects crops.
* Lack of groundwater due to consumption of surface water.
* Water pollution.
* Increase the rate of diseases due to pollution water.
It means to convert salt water into fresh water, to make it suitable for irrigation and human consumption.
* Good solution for areas that have limited resources of fresh water.
* Good solution for areas that are close to oceans.
* It is alternative source of water:
- in the dry season (drought)
-at high population.
-lack of groundwater.
* Marin life may affected by salt and chemical discharge from desalination plants.
* Salt water decreases oxygen levels in the water that kill animals and plants in ocean.
* It can be harmful to human health because the chemicals which used in desalination can get through into the water.
* Requiring large amounts of energy.
Treatment of waste water and turn it into water suitable for agriculture and industry, or for human consumption.