“To what extent was the unification of Italy due to the weakness of Austria?” Throughout Europe between 1815 and 1848 swept feelings of nationalism and a desire for unification, including the states collectively known as Italy. This lack of identity was underlined when Count Metternich said “Italy is just a geographical expression.” Nationalism promoted the belief in one language, one culture and the pride in one’s identity. Before unification, life in Italy was frustrating for those who wanted unification. The North and the South states were economically different; the pope influenced the central states. Nevertheless, the process began from 1861 and by 1871 boundaries had been settled.
Cavour did many things and has many contributions to Italy. But the main aim was not unified Italy. He hoped that Piedmont would be strong enough to assume the leadership of Italy in the event of another wars with Austria, France and the House of Hapsburg of Austria. Many facts and evidence could see that Cavour did not want a unified Italy. He tried to prevent it and the "unification" was only Piedmontization (tried to extent the influence of Piedmont).
This led to both countries to sign the Treaty of Villafranca in 1859 where France handed Lombardy to Piedmont. France also helped gain Duchies of Italy by giving full support through preventing the old rulers from returning to their territories. This resulted to the plebiscite in March 1860 where Duchies of Parma, Modena, Tuscany and Romagna agreed to be annexed to Piedmont. Thus, the foreign aids from France helped made the Italian Unification successful by gaining Lombardy and Duchies of Italy to unite with Piedmont. Secondly, the Italian Unification was a result of foreign aids from Prussia because Prussia needed Piedmont’s help during war against Austria.
From this emerged a number of evident figures such as Guiseppe Mazzini who were advocates for Italian Unification. However, the significance of Mazzini has been questioned and it could be argued that the limited appeal of his ideas were the main reason for the slow progress of national unity in Italy. Although, it could also be said that there were additional reasons such as regionalism, restored monarchies and the power of Austria that possessed more prominent effects. Guiseppe Mazzini was an Italian politician, journalist and activist for the unification of Italy. He strived for the unity of Italy as a whole peninsula that had a republican democracy.
How significant was Mazzini in the growth of opposition to autocratic and foreign rule in Italy in the years 1831–49? (30) Mazzini was a republican nationalist who had a significant effect in the growth of anti-autocratic feeling in Italy. He had radical aims for the future of Italy and he envisioned unification. He was the first leader to indoctrinate in the minds of Italians a vision of political unification. Mazzini created the Young Italy society after the 1831 revolutions.
Both Count Camillo Cavour of Italy and Prussian Prime Minister Otto Von Bismarck brought their respective nations to unify in their own respective ways. In 1852 Cavour, the Prime Minister on Piedmont, he looked onto other liberal Italian principalities. His greatest contribution was his establishment of diplomacy; the negotiations between states. Meanwhile Prime Minister Otto Von Bismarck had a different view on the unification on his country; he was against diplomacy and remained scornful towards liberals. “The great questions of the day will not be settled by means of speeches and majority decisions but by iron and blood” (Bismarck).
Cavour then brought Napoleon III to his side with the cities of Nice and Savoy. Italian nationalism is linked back to 1797 when Napoleon took control of the Italian peninsula and created the puppet Kingdom of Italy. He joined smaller Italian city-states into larger units to make his rule more effective. He thought Austria was weakening as he created a united and powerful Italy. Giuseppe Garibaldi was able to harness the power of the mass, most especially the peasants.
Growth of support for facism was a reason for Mussolinis appointment as Prime Minister,however there were many other reasons for Mussolinis appointment as PM, but growth of support was very important for him. The war and the mutilated victory, had an affect on Mussolinis appointment as PM. The main reason wad that the nationalists were bitterly disappointed that italy didn’t make any gains during the war. The nationalists claimed that Italy had been betrayed by the Liberal government, this shows that the nationalists might have wanted to overthrow the Liberal government and therefore supported Mussolini before he was appointed. This links into the title point that Mussolini had a wide support base and that it was growing.
Although the results were ineffective it was effective in the sense of spreading Nationalism. Mazzini was known as the heart of the revolution; he organized revolutionary groups such as the Society of Young Italy which aimed at training leaders and spreading nationalism in Italy which the main goal was to spread nationalism. Topic 2- Works of Cavour and Garibaldi- support of other countries The first country that helped Piedmont to unify Italy was France. After the Crimean War (1854-6) Napoleon III, king of France, agreed to help Piedmont in taking Lombardy and Venetia from Austria. In 1858, Cavour and Napoleon III met at Plombieres.
Why German Unification was Germany Unified under Austria and not under Prussia? The revolutions of 1830/1848 brought lots of turbulence to the scene. In this period liberalism and nationalism ideas strengthen themselves and was particularly a problem for Austria because it suffered from divisions with the diverse nationalities and was over stretched, especially with the Italian commitments. So as the Austrian Empire is fighting against decline, the Prussian Empire was only strengthening itself. This period saw the gradual strengthening of Prussia with the Zollverein and economic reforms.