So it’s less reliable than historical costs. From the relevance perspective, accounting numbers should be measured on market value. Market value accounting allows the decision maker to obtain true and fair view about the financial statement because it more representative about current
1. What is the most compelling justification for attempting to calculate a return on marketing investment? a. The most compelling justification for attempting to calculate a Return on Marketing Investment (ROMI) is the discontent with traditional metrics, which does not allow managers to assess the future performance of their firm at any moment. While the traditional accounting methods are good to measure past performance and financial stature, it does not allow for managers to see the impact or value that marketing has on the bottom line.
This method converts net income to net cash from operating activities. When using the indirect method a company must convert net income to net cash by gathering net income and adding or subtracting adjustments, this would give the company the Net cash, without having to go thru detail transactions. . Even though the indirect method may be easier for a company to manage their cash flow, I believe that this method may bring more work in case of an audit. (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2010. p 618).
Should accounting numbers be measured on historical cost or market value? Critics have argued that the accounting numbers measured on historical cost are more reliability than accounting numbers measured on market value. This is due to the reason that historical cost is based on actual transactions, not merely possible transactions. Figures on the financial statements are supported by record of transactions and based on evidence. The figures are recorded based on receipt, therefore no judgment is needed.
In Mr. Buffett`s opinion, intrinsic value is the present value of the future expected performance. It`s estimated calculating the discounted cash flow of a business during its remaining life. It`s important because the DCF is the only logical way to evaluate the attractiveness of a business or an investment. Other alternatives to intrinsic value fall short in determining whether an investor is indeed buying something which is really worth and is therefore truly operating on the most basic principle which is aggregating value. The $2.55 billion gain in Berkshire`s market value of equity and the 6.28% jump on Scottish Power`s stock means that the acquisition was a win-win situation, creating value for both companies.
Kaplan, Steven E. and Ruland, Robert G., “Positive Theory, Rationality and Accounting Regulation” Critical Perspectives on Accounting, (1991). Existing agency theory fails as a positive theory since it does not provide theory of accounting regulatory development. Watts & Zimmerman are inconsistent w/ positive theory, since they evaluate rather than predict theories. If W&Z wish to argue normatively, they should not do so under the guise of positive theory. Failure of agency theory to provide a prediction of accounting regulatory development stems from its reliance on a rationality assumption which is both too narrow and too broad.
According to company spokesman Mark Dollins, Quaker uses a discounted cash flow model to evaluate acquisitions and divestitures, and merely uses EVA as an incentive compensation tool. "EVA does not take into account, in mergers and acquisitions, things such as market conditions," Dollins says. Not surprisingly, Stern Stewart & Co. says EVA is a wonderful tool for valuing acquisitions. "Whether it had been an EVA analysis or a discounted cash flow or price-to-earnings analysis, it's really the old adage--garbage in, garbage out," says Stern Stewart senior partner and co-founder G. Bennett Stewart III. "It all depends on the assumptions."
Incremental cash flow is additional revenue that is generated when a business or other type of organization launches a new project. Cash flow of this type is considered to be outside the standard and usual sources of cash that the organization enjoys, and remains in that class or status until the project is fully integrated into the normal operations of the entity. One of the benefits of identifying incremental cash flow is that it makes the task of measuring the progress, or lack of it, associated with the new project. This in turn aids in evaluating the value of the project to the organization, making it easier to determine if the project should continue or be abandoned. In identifying the true contribution of the incremental cash flow, several factors must be considered.
Cash Basis and Accrual Basis Cash basis is an accounting method wherein revenues are recognized when cash is received and expenses are recognized when paid. This method is inferior to the accrual basis of accounting where revenues are recognized when they are earned and expenses are matched to revenues or the accounting period when they are incurred, rather than paid. The cash basis of accounting is usually followed by individuals and small companies, but is not in compliance with accounting's matching principle. It does not conform with the provisions of GAAP and is not considered a good management tool because it leaves a time gap between recording the cause of an action, sale or purchase, and its result of payment or receipt of money. It is, however, simpler than the accrual basis accounting and quite suitable for small organizations that transact business mainly in cash, which is also called cash accounting.
Cost of capital can help define the acceptability of investment opportunities. Besides, the cost of capital can scheme the corporate finance arrangement. Generally, the best way for designing the corporate finance structure is based on information of changing of the capital market. So, manager can figure out information like accounting reports and their cost of capital to market. By using the information, manager can use cost of capital for restructure the market price and earning per share in order to bring advantage for company.