In Prussia he established a secret police or Gestapo to further intimidate people with violent actions against anyone who spoke up against the state - which they interpreted to be the Nazi Party. These policemen launched their own 'reign of terror' in February 1933, disrupting and breaking up meetings of political parties; making arrests and interrogating suspects. All this was aimed at anyone seen to be a threat to Hitler's aim of winning a majority. These police forces were ordered by Goring to use their firearms on anyone they suspected of being an enemy of the state - or face punishment themselves. More than 50 political murders took place in the month before the elections.
During this event Speer and Hitler became close friends and when Troost died in 1934, Speer filled his position as the Party’s Chief Architect. The most prestigious of Speer architectural assignments was the Germania Project of 1937. The plan was based on Hitler’s perception that Germany was the most powerful country in the world. With this assignment, he was named First Architect of the Reich. The assignment involved the design of a new Reich Chancellery and the destruction of thousands of Jewish homes.
Speer’s appointment as Architect of the Third Reich contributed greatly to his rise in prominence. Karl Hanke was the district leader of the Nazi Party, and knew of Speer’s architectural qualities. He then employed Speer to redecorate the inside of the new district organisation headquarters. Hanke moved swiftly up the ranks and hired Speer for projects such as; the redecoration of the new district headquarters in
In addition, World War II introduced change through industrialisation, which was key to Russia’s success in the war. These key reforming leaders and other factors of change saw Russia grow from a very deprived country in 1856 to an industrial superpower in 1964. Alexander II became known as ‘Alexander the Great Reformer’ and ‘the Tsar Liberator’ which suggests that his work and reforms changed the nature of Russian government and society to a large extent. The emancipation of the Serfs in 1861 initially appeared to have major benefits for the serfs. As Alexander II said: “We vowed in our hearts to fulfil the mission which is entrusted to Us and to surround with Our affection and Our Imperial solicitude all Our faithful subjects of every rank and condition”2.
I think that Theodore Roosevelt played an important role in the development of Progressivism between 1900 and 1920. Progressivism is a political attitude which favours various reforms through government action. Progressivism was the general response to the vast changes brought by industrialization; it was an alternative to both the traditional conservative response and to the more radical streams of socialism and anarchism. The term progressivism is usually associated with left-winged parties in the United States. The progressive party was the most successful third party in modern American history during this time period.
Plekhanov did not believe in terrorist ideas but rather supported a more social idea, working with industrial workers and peasants. After closely interacting with many Marxist groups, the Social Democratic Labour Party was formed, with the 'father of Russian Marxism' as its leader. Like Marx, Plekhanov believed that it was the industrial proletariat who would bring about a socialist revolution; he stated that a successful revolution to overthrow the Tsarist regime was too early to take place in Russia. Despite his popularity at the start of the campaign, many members soon became too impatient with their leader; demanding for a more active programme to be formed. Vladimir Ulyanov was one of the members that constantly criticised the theories of
How successful were successive German Chancellors in protecting the position of the Second Reich's ruling elite? Germany's ruling elite were made up primarily of Prussians, land owning aristocrats or high ranking military leaders. It also consisted of leading industrialists and the judiciary. However, their position as the ruling elite was under threat. Although the industrial revolution had a huge positive impact on German economy, it also lead to a rise in socialism which meant the emergence of pressure groups, such as the Nationalist pressure groups and the Economic pressure groups.
Lenin also suppressed democracy, closing down the constituent assembly in January 1918 after ‘one day of democracy’. Both the Tsars and the communist rulers also showed no hesitation in the use of secret police and mass terror. Each regime had its own secret police - the Third Section under Alexander II, the Okhrana under Alexander III and Nicholas II, the Cheka, the NKVD and the KGB under the communists. The suppression of opponents was also a common practice throughout the period. Under the term of Pyotr Stolypin as Prime Minister (1906-11), hundreds of opponents were hanged - earning the hangman’s noose the nickname - ‘the Stolypin necktie’.
Albert Speer was with no uncertainty a significant figure and member within the Nationalist Socialist Party who contributed a noteworthy amount to Nazi ideology and practice. His influence however within the Nazi Party grew as time went on holding key positions such as Hitler's architect, Head of German Labour Front and Minister for Armaments and Munitions from 8 February 1942 among other tasks. At this position Speer had substantial power and was also said to be the second most powerful man in the Third Reich after Hitler. In 1934 Speer became the ˜First Architect of the Reich,' before this however he had menial tasks such as renovating the Gauhaus in Berlin and organising a backdrop for the May Day rally at the Templehof airfield in Berlin
Committees were formed to find communists and people not loyal to the United States. The Loyalty Review Board was created in 1947 and designed to find government employees that were un-loyal. The board dismissed 212 employees. The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was also created to find un-American activities, and made headlines when it started to investigate alleged communist influence in the movie industry. The Hollywood Ten was a group of ten men who, because they would not cooperate with the HUAC were jailed.