s have greater credibility than commercial sources because of the likelihood that they are more objective in their product assessments. When the intentions of a source are clearly profit making, then reputation, expertise, and knowledge become important factors in message credibility. The credibility of commercial messages is often based on the composite evaluation of the reputation of the company sending the message, the retail outlet that carries the product, the medium that carries the message, and the company spokesperson (the actor or sales representative who delivers the message).
4. What are the implications of the sleeper effect for the selection of spokespersons and the scheduling of advertising messages? The persuasive effects of high-credibility sources do not endure over time. Though a high-credibility source is initially more influential than a low-credibility source, research suggests that both positive and negative credibility effects tend to disappear after six weeks or so. This phenomenon has been termed the sleeper effect. Consumers simply forget the source of the message filter, then they forget the message itself. However, reintroduction of the message by the source serves to jog the audience's memory and the original effect re-manifests itself—that is, the high-credibility source remains more persuasive than the low-credibility source. The implication for marketers who use high-credibility spokespersons is that they must rerun the ad or commercial regularly in order to maintain its persuasiveness.
5. Should marketers use more body copy than artwork in print ads? Explain your answer. The central and peripheral routes persuasion theory suggests that individuals are more likely to devote active cognitive effort to evaluating the pros and cons of a product in a high-involvement situation, and more likely to focus