Vocabulary Essay

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Science TAKS Vocabulary 1. Scientific methods—common procedures used by scientists to gather information used in problem solving and experimentation 2. Control—the part of the experiment in which all condition are kept constant 3. Hypothesis—testable explanation of a question or problem 4. Variable—a quantity or condition that can have more than one value in a controlled experiment 5. Laboratory safety—biologists try to minimize hazards to themselves, the people working around them, and the organisms they are studying 6. Circulatory System—includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood 7. Digestive System—receives and breaks down food and absorbs nutrients 8. Endocrine System—controls the metabolic activities of the body structures 9. Excretory system—filters the blood, collects urine, and excretes urine from the body (some textbooks call this the urinary system) 10. Immune system—protects the body from infections such as the cold and flu 11. Integumentary system—consists of the skin and its associated structures 12. Muscular/skeletal system—includes three types of muscles: smooth, cardiac, and skeletal; the skeletal system consists of the skeleton 13. Nervous system—includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves and sense organs 14. Reproductive system—involved in the production of gametes 15. Respiratory system—consists of a pair of lungs, a series of passageways into the body, and a thin sheet of smooth muscle called the diaphragm 16. Host cell—a cell in which a virus reproduces 17. Lytic cycle---viral reproductive cycle 18. Retroviruses—viruses containing a unique enzyme, reverse transcriptase, which transcribes viral RNA into DNA, enabling the viral DNA to enter the host cell’s chromosome 19. Natural selection—mechanism that explains how changes in populations occur when organisms with favorable variations

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