This implies that an act is right if it minimizes violation of a certain moral right thus no one should violate moral rights for happiness sake and be justified. But consequentialism assumes that an act can only be right if its absolute outcome is the best. This implies that an act is only right if the outcome minimizes pain and maximizes happiness. Consequentialists and Utilitarianism consider distribution differently. Utilitarians believe that fairness is a better approach but consequentialists assume that the overall amount of good matters even if only a
Chapter two of Nicomachean Ethics deals with virtue, most importantly, its golden mean—the amount that which the virtue is secreted neither in excess nor in deficiency. For example, courage is a mean between its deficiency of rashness and the excess of cowardice. Another example can be justice, its deficiency being giving too little and its excess being giving too much. As such, Aristotle argues that virtue cannot be good nor can be virtue in itself unless it completes the criteria of achieving the golden mean. At first glance, this argument seems to be inevitable, as it seems that moderation to everything is a necessity.
To some extent, it can be acknowledged that the rich and the poor have distinct ways of recognizing happiness. As consequence, it is not easy to define what happiness definitely likes. Besides, in today life, love, reputation, good health, good living circumstance, tranquility, fresh and peaceful environment are considered as indispensable factors to achieve so-called happiness. Nonetheless, this does not mean that people without these conditions cannot be happy. Indeed, only with self-knowledge can people realize that these conditions will somehow make them happy.
Virtue is in a persons’ best interest, it is un-teachable much like happiness but still requires knowledge, the knowledge of one’s true self. Virtue and happiness are intertwined for Socrates each of them need knowledge to be achieved, leading to Socrates belief that knowledge is the single most important key to living a happy, virtuous fulfilled life. In order to understand Plato’s idea of virtue and happiness, we have to look deeper into his overall philosophy. Plato believed there were two separate worlds, the world of being and the world of becoming (dualism). Plato’s correlates the world of being with the soul and the world of becoming with the body.
'The weaknesses of Virtue Ethics outweigh its strengths.' Discuss. Virtue ethics derives from Plato and Aristotle and does not focus on actions being right or wrong, but instead of how to be a good person and the character of a person. It looks at what makes a person good and the qualities (or virtues) that make a person good. Virtue ethics is agent-centred ethics rather than act-centred; it asks ‘What sort of person ought I to be?’ rather than ‘How ought I to act?’ The Aristotelian approach shows to give an account of the structure of morality and explained that the point of enrolling in ethics is to become good: ‘For we are enquiring not in order to know what virtue is but in order to become good since otherwise our enquiry would be of no use.’ (Nichomachean Ethics, Book 1, ch.
“CONTEMPLATION” Why is Contemplation so highly regarded by Aristotle when considering what is the best state of leisure, how does this portray in my own individual state of happiness. By understanding Aristotle’s idea of contemplation, can it solve this overall collective dissatisfaction with the way I view my leisure state? Aristotle begins the ethics by stating the activities performed in an individuals life and existence aims at some sort of good. Aristotle exemplifies this through three different explanations of “good” (traditional patterns of life). These are the life of Pleasure, the Political life, and Contemplative life.
However, this concept of ideal would be considered counterproductive and unjust in modern Western societies. In a society such as Plato's, everyone involved accepts that each citizen has a proper place and certain tasks to carry out for the good of the state as a whole. This is probably the greatest advantage of the model. A society where everyone is dedicated to the betterment of society and accepts their place would be extremely efficient and utopian in regards to taking care of the needs of the people. As a specific feature of the ideal state, it does not seem to have a downside.
The view that virtue is its own reward was believed by philosophers Aristotle and Plato. They argued that you have to be virtuous in order to reach eudaimonia, which is the state absolute happiness, and simply trying to seek pleasure is not enough to allow you to reach it. Your actions should be internally rewarding, rather than externally, and should develop you as a person rather than help you be praised for your actions as you do things to please your inner self. Plato believes that someone who is always trying to fulfill their desires will never be truly happy as they are always on the look out for more, even better things. Therefore they will never be satisfied with what they already have, which is what Plato says you have to be to reach eudaimonia.
For utilitarian school of thought, an individual strives to do the most good, even at the expense of the minority. Utilitarianism and Kantianism find the basis of their differences in the idea that the ends justify the means. Utilitarian beliefs support this idea while Kantian philosophy rejects this. Modern ethics were devised from these two basic ethical beliefs in an attempt to combine the best aspects. Generally, the morally “right” action benefits the majority while affecting the fewest amount in a negative way.
The Secrets to a Life of Happiness In his article “Secrets of Happiness” Steven Reiss contrasts two types of happiness: Feel good Happiness and Value-based Happiness. Value-based happiness is more important for us to invest our lives in than Feel good Happiness. He argues that we can’t have a life full of Feel good Happiness without the Value-based Happiness and expect to be truly happy. That doesn’t necessarily mean that we have to do without all the Feel good Happiness in our lives. It just means that we need more Value-based Happiness.