Conclusion A. Compare and Contrast B. Improvements to Analyze C. Summarization of Both Theories Criminologist Attempt to Understand Criminal Behavior by Constructing Theories of Crime The study of criminology is one of the most important parts of the criminal justice field. Criminology is an” integrated approach to the study of the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior” (Siegel, 2010 ). The main objective of criminology is to find possible causes of crime and deviance; which will help in the decline of crime within society.
There are three goals of forensic victimology. It involves outlining the victims lifestyles and circumstance, the events leading up to the crime, and the nature of crime (Turvey, 2012, p. 125). By first identifying the victims lifestyle, “a baseline to compare” (Turvey, 2012, p. 165) which factors of the victims history or lifestyle are relevant to the crime. This can include “recent consensual sex- as well as past STD’s, actions taken by the victim after the crime, history of drug abuse, and a history of mental or behavioral problems (Turvey, 2012, p. 166). All details are documented, and “intended to guide the exam, evidence collection, and crime lab analysis of findings (Turvey, 2012, p. 167).
Discuss approaches to profiling There are three approaches to criminal profiling; the British approach, the US approach and Geographical Profiling. The US approach is a top down approach which means they start with the big parts of the case and work down to the smaller things involved. The approach was invented by the FBI in the 1970’s when they first looked at the family backgrounds, personalities, behaviours, crimes and motives of serial killers who had sexual aspects to their crimes. They then went on to use in-depth interviews with 36 serial killers. The information they gathered from this and the FBI’s experience and intuition they developed the classification system.
Sometimes, crime happens suddenly because criminals don’t think before they act and this kind of crimes are usually called “unplanned crimes”. What we need to know here is planned or unplanned, both kinds of crimes are choices and these choices are made by the effects of the causes of crime. People have been trying to explain the causes of crime since the first known crime. Crime is usually considered as a bad behavior in the big majority of the societies. When we look through history, we can see the ancient Babylon Laws of Hammurabi as the first written source created to control the bad behaviors.
Positivist victimology has three main features according to Miers. Firstly, it aims to identify the factors that produce patterns in victimisation, especially those that make some individuals or groups more likely to be victims. Secondly, it focuses on interpersonal crimes of violence, and thirdly, it aims to identify victims who have contributed to their own victimisation. An example of a positivist study is that of Hans Von Hentig in 1948. He identified 13 characteristics of victims that make them more vulnerable than non-victims.
Social Process and Social Development Theory Paper CJA/314 – Criminology Damian Thomason University of Phoenix May 14, 2012 Judy Mazzucca Social Process and Social Development Theory There are several components of social process theory. Social process theories view criminal and deviant behavior as mechanisms which have evolved and have been learned through societal interaction. The three primary classes of social process theory include: social control theory, social learning theory and social reaction theory. The “Tent City, Arizona” video represents the element of criminal behavior which is learned societal interaction. An explanation of how the video represents the element of criminal behavior which is learned through societal interaction is to follow.
Models of Organized Crime CJA/384 Models of Organized Crime Introduction There are many theories about the structure or models of organized crime syndicates. Empirical data for organized crime syndicates is limited, which enables many theories to exist. Two of the models include bureaucratic and patron-client organizations. The similarities and differences between the two will be discussed. After an explanation of the models, the importance of understanding organized crimes models will be outlined.
This theory not only centers on routine activities, but also the appearance, location, and vulnerability of the individual, (Kramer, 2013). There are three elements that interact in the lifestyle theory; the presence of motivated offenders, the availability of suitable targets, and whether there is an adequate guardian present, (Kramer). In the lifestyle theory individuals that live high-risk are usually involved with drinking, taking drugs, leaving the house late nights, and getting involved in crimes themselves, (Victimization Theories, 2014). In 1958, Marvin Eugene Wolfgang, publish his first work of data analysis he studied titled Patterns in Criminal Homicide. The book contained the first study of comprehensive data on 588 homicides in Philadelphia dating January 1, 1948 through December 31, 1952.
Is rationale to assume that parental and family risk factors played a vital part in the life of a criminal, because they are a product of their surroundings. Understanding the mental process of a criminal behavior can assist on identify the problems such as antisocial behaviors. It identifies the individuals with their parents and other family members of the family. Taking a look at the parents and siblings will give researcher a different spectrum that can or may not voucher for the actions of the criminal, it brings all the issues about their past to surface. Parental and family risk factors effects and shapes the individual into the person that they are today.
Victims can also play an indirect role in a criminal incident, such as when a woman adopts a lifestyle that continually brings her into high-crime areas (Siegel 2011). The discovery that victims play an important role in the crime process has prompted the scientific study of victims, or victimology. Criminologists who focus their attention on crime victims refer to themselves as victimologists(Siegel 2011). Victimization’s Toll on Society The costs of victimization can include such things as damaged property, pain and suffering to victims, and the involvement of the police and other agencies of the justice system. The pain and suffering inflicted on an individual can result in the need for medical care, the loss of wages from not being able to go to work, and reduced quality of life from debilitating injuries and /or fear of being victimized again, which can result in not being able to go to work, long term medical care, and counseling.