Running Head: VICTIM TYPOLOGIES
CJ266-01: Deviance and Violence
May 31, 2011
Sellin and Wolfgang (1964) offer a victim typology that addresses situations rather than relationships. Their five categories are primary victimization, secondary victimization, tertiary victimization, mutual victimization, and no victimization” (J., R. 2006). Primary victimization is when a group or an individual targets a specific type of victim to mark for persecution. Hate crimes are an example of primary victimization, which we frequently hear about on the news. A lot of people have been killed just because of their ethnicity, appearance, race, religion, or sexual preference. These crimes are called Hate or Bias Crimes, and the gathering of information on these crimes began in 1990 with the passing of the “Federal Hate Crime Statistics Act in 1990” (DiPompeo, C. 2008). Another example of primary victimization is domestic violence. This can be when a man kills his wife because he caught her on bed with another man.
Secondary victimization is when the victims are not personals objectives for the criminal. In other words, the victim does not get physically harmed, but do get affected by the criminal’s actions. An example of secondary victimization would be the “Ponzi Scheme” by Bernard Madoff; which in March 2009 pleaded guilty to the largest Ponzi scheme in history. The amount of money estimated in this scheme was about $65 billion. Another example of secondary victimization would be when a Pastor from a church organization embezzles the offerings.
Tertiary victimization is when the general public becomes the victim. These can be cases involving the government that affect our society. A good example of this type of victimization is when “an elected official takes pleasure trips and write them off as business expenses”, this elected official is cheating the public (J., R. 2006). Mutual...