Here it’s broken down back into ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi). Chemical energy is released from the phosphate bond and used by the cell, ATPase catalyses this reaction. The ADP and inorganic phosphate are recycled and the process starts again. Key words Phosphorylation – adding phosphate to a molecule e.g ADP is phosphorylated to ATP Photophosphorylation – adding a phosphate molecule using light Photolysis – the splitting of a molecule using light energy Hydrolysis – the splitting of
This is called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: light reactions and the Calvin cycle. In light reactions, water is split, which creates electrons and releases oxygen as a byproduct [Mr.Orlinsky’s lectures]. This reaction also reduces NADP to NADPH. Light is absorbed by chlorophyll, and this causes electrons to jump to a higher electron level and create ATP.
An investigation of the light-dependent electron transport using DCPIP Introduction Photosynthesis is a reduction-oxidation reaction, which uses carbon dioxide, water and light to produce water and sugar. During this reaction water is oxidised and carbon dioxide is reduced (Sadava et al. 2011). There are two parts to photosynthesis, the light-dependent reaction and light-independent reaction. The light-dependent reaction consists of changing light energy to chemical energy for the formation of ATP and NADPH.
In redox reaction, one element or compound is reduced and gains electrons, while on the other hand, the other element or compound is oxidized and loses electrons. For this lab, through the given oxidation and reduction numbers from balancing the equation and the electrons, it was shown that Manganese was reduced while Iron was oxidized. Also from the equation, the movement of electrons can be noticed, as it was added or subtracted from the substances. In order to balance an equation, there must be same number of elements on both sides, with the exception of hydrogen and oxygen. From there, in order to balance oxygen, water molecules are enumerated to the opposite of the equation/reaction.
Mass Spectrometry According to R.William, in order to measure the characteristics of individual molecules, a mass spectrometer converts them to ions so that they can roam about and be manipulated by external electrical and magnetic fields. Since ions are very reactive and short-lived, their formation and manipulation must be conducted in vacuum. Atmospheric pressure must be around 760 torr (mm of mercury). The pressure under which ions may be handled is roughly 10-5 to 10-8 torr (less than a billionth of an atmosphere). In one common procedure, ionization is affected by a high energy beam of electrons and ion separation is achieved by accelerating and focusing the ions in a beam, which is then bent by an external magnetic field.
Date : 18/02/2013 Micro-scale Determination of the Activation Energy of the Hydrogen Peroxide-Iodide Reaction Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the rate at which hydrogen peroxide decomposes to water and oxygen with the use of an iodide catalyst. Using the logarithmic form of the Arrhenius equation: ln k’ = -Ea/RT + ln A . the activation energy was determined to be 52.3 kJ/mol. It was also found that increasing the temperature also increased the rate, as there was more energy available to increase the speed of the reaction. Introduction: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the Activation Energy of the Hydrogen Peroxide-Iodide reaction.
NADH competitively inhibits enzymes in glycolysis as an example of negative feedback B. The activity of the Krebs cycle drops when there is a high concentration of ATP C. ATP acts on a regulatory site of phosphofructokinase to stop the 2nd phosphate addition D. ATP binds to an allosteric site on an enzyme in the Krebs cycle (9) Which of the following is not an intermediate of the Krebs Cycle? A. Oxaloacetate B. Succinyl CoA C. G3P D. Malate (10) In the ETC… A. Electrons are pulled from one complex to the next due to electronegativity differences B. NADH has lower potential energy than FADH2 C. O2 is the final electron acceptor D. Iron containing proteins within the OMM are being reduced and oxidized (11) In the thylakoid membrane, the proton gradient is generated from which of the following? A.
Investigate How Changing the Concentration of a Sodium Chloride Solution Affects the Rate of Electrolysis Aim: During my investigation I will be investigating how changing the concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) will affect the rate of electrolysis. Electrolysis: “Electrolysis is the process by which ionic substances are broken down into simpler substances using electricity. During electrolysis, metals and gases may form at the electrodes.” (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa/ions/electrolysisrev1.shtml) There are always two electrodes during electrolysis; the anode, which has a positive charge, and the cathode, which has a negative charge). Generally, the electrodes are made of carbon as it is the only non-metal that is a conductor. The positively charged ions are attracted to the negative cathode where they gain electrons to form atoms that have no overall charge.
This luciferin is a tetrapyrrole and differs to chlorophyll due to the type of metal ions present in its structure. Light emission from Dinoflagellates is pH-sensitive. This is mainly due to two factors. Due to the tertiary structure of the luciferase, a change in H+ ion concentration causes the luciferase to lose conformation, exposing its active site to the luciferin. Also, the luciferin molecule can be protected until the pH is suitable for it to bind to the protein.
(b) Calculate the volume of 0.2M UO3- needed to react with 20.00 cm3 of 0.1M Cr2O72-. 3. 24.40 g of hydrated iron(II) sulphate, FeSO4.xH2O was dissolved and made up to 1.0 dm3 of aqueous solution, acidified with sulphuric acid. 25.00 cm3 of the solution was titrated with 20.00 cm3 of 0.022M potassium manganate(VII) solution for complete oxidation. a) Write the equation for the reaction.