Various Belonging Essay

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Differences in Urine Concentrations 1. Enantiostasis is the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment. Living organisms employ one of the two strategies in enantiostasis: Osmoconformer or osmoregulator. Osmoconformers are organisms that can tolerate changes in the environment through the altering of the solute concentrations to match that of their external environment; their metabolism can also cope with the changes in the salinity levels of the environment. In comparison, osmoregulators avoid internal environment changes and have the ability to keep the solutes at the optimum level for metabolic functioning; they also are unable to tolerate a range of salt concentrations. Osmoconformer | Osmoregulator | An example of an Osmoconformer is the shark. Sharks adopt trimethylamine oxide to regulate osmotic pressure in the cells to equal that of the external environment. | Salmon is an example of an osmoregulator. As salmon travel through waters that vary in osmotic pressures they have special adaption’s to maintain proper metabolic functioning. In marine waters, salmon drink great volumes of water, remove salts from the gills. When in freshwater, salmon drink small amounts of water, absorb salt via the gills and excrete very dilute urine. | 2. Terrestrial Mammals: Terrestrial animals need to conserve water due to the osmotic pressures from the external environment. The concentration of urine within terrestrial animals changes with the availability of water. When water levels in the blood rise, there is a greater amount of water secreted but a decrease in the concentration of the urine. On the other hand, if there is a low level of water within the blood, there is less volume of urine secreted and the urine more concentrated. Freshwater Fish: The osmotic problem faced by freshwater fish is that it is a

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