Valuation Principles Of Accounting Essay

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VALUATION PRINCIPLES · a. Intangible Assets · b. Property, Plant and Equipment · c. Financial Assets and Investments in Associated Companies · d. Finished Goods, Work in Progress, Raw Materials · e. Construction Contracts · f. Trade Accounts Receivable · g. Marketable Securities · h. Cash and Cash Equivalents · i. Share Capital · j. Capital Reserves · k. Retained Earnings · l. Provisions · m. Other Accounting and Valuation Principles · n. Foreign Currency · o. Employee Benefits · p. Income Taxes · q. Use of Estimates · r. Contingencies EXPLAINATION OF ALL THE TERMS a. Intangible Assets Intangible assets are accounted for at acquisition cost. After initial recognition, intangible assets are accounted for at cost less accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over the best estimate of their useful lives. The amortization period and the amortization method are reviewed annually at each financial year-end. b. Property, Plant and Equipment Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. When assets are sold or retired, their cost and accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the accounts and any gain or loss resulting from their disposal is included in the income statement. The initial cost of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes and any directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition and location for its intended use. Expenditures incurred after the fixed assets have been put into operation, such as repairs and maintenance and overhaul costs, are normally charged to income in the period in which the costs are incurred. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the following

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