Utilitarianism Essay

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Utilitarianism is a concept of pleasure and pain. Utilitarian philosophy sees “good” as anything that increases pleasure and reduces pain. An objection sometimes raised against utilitarianism is that it allows for the violation of moral principles. One might think that if the priciples were violated once they are going to be violated again and consequently, it is going to give a rise for moral degradation. In my opinion, the moral degradation is not going to happen if violation of moral principles from its very beginning have positive motives and condequenses. John Stuart Mill, a British phylosopher, explained that morality is created by man for man, its goal is to improve society so that each of its members individually lived well. Mill thought that utilitarianism is the only principle on which to base human morality. Utilitarianism, in Mill's definition suggests that: “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.”(330) Thus Mill argued that this rule does not imply self-serving, selfish approach or when a man following his own personal desires ignoring the happiness of others. On the contrary, a person acting in any way must first take into account the total happiness but not singular. The principle of utility involves general well-being, the welfare of society as many of its citizens, and not a chosen elite. How do we decide whether a given act is right or wrong, and hence take it or reject it? In order to determine the correctness or incorrectness of the actions utilitarian weight all the positive effects in terms of human satisfaction. Positive and negative consequences of actions in order to satisfy may be much greater than its immediate results. Lying is considered as a morally wrong action. However, utilitarians would accept liying in certain cercumstances, hence it is not

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